An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1358
CNO cycle
  چرخه‌یِ CNO   
carxe-ye CNO (#)

Fr.: cycle CNO   

A series of → nuclear reactions taking place in stars in which → carbon, → nitrogen, and → oxygen are used to transform → hydrogen into → helium. In → massive stars the carbon cycle is the dominant process of energy generation, whereas in → low-mass stars such as the Sun, the → proton-proton chain of reactions converts hydrogen into helium. The carbon cycle starts and ends with carbon-12, which acts as a catalyst in the sequential production of helium from hydrogen; neutrinos and gamma rays are also produced.

CNO; → cycle.

CNO star
  ستاره‌ی ِ CNO   
setâre-ye CNO

Fr.: étoile CNO   

A late → O-type star or an early → B-type star in whose spectrum the lines of some of the elements → carbon (C), → nitrogen (N), and → oxygen (O) are present.

CNO; → star.

CO formation
  دیسش ِ CO   
diseš-e CO

Fr.: formation de CO   

The chemical reaction that gives rise to → carbon monoxide in the → interstellar medium. According to models, several processes may lead to CO formation. For example, HCO+ + e → CO + H. The molecule HCO+ is itself produced through several paths, for example: H3+ + C → CH2+ + H, CH2+ + H2 → CH3+ + H, CH3+ + O → HCO+ + H. Alternatively: C+ + H2O → HCO+ + H. Another possibility: C+ + OH → CO+ + H, CO+ + H2→ HCO+ + H.

carbon monoxide; → formation.

CO ladder
  نردبان ِ CO   
nardebân-e CO

Fr.: échelle CO   

A spectral line energy distribution which plots the intensity of each → carbon monoxide (CO) transition as a function of the upper J number. This type of → diagram is a powerful diagnostic tool, where models show that these CO ladders have very different shapes depending on the type of excitation (i.e. photon dominated region, PDR or X-ray dominated region, XDR) as well as density and radiation environment.

carbon monoxide (CO); → ladder.

ham- (#)

Fr.: co-   


co-added image
  وینه‌ی ِ هم‌افزوده، تصویر ِ ~   
vine-ye hamafzudé, tasvir-e ~

Fr.: image intégrée   

An image made up of several individual images of relatively short exposure times which are added together in order to produce a final image of higher quality.

Co-added, from → co- "together" + added p.p. of → add; → image.

Tasvir, → image; hamafzudé from ham- "together", → com-, + afzudé p.p. of afzudan, → add.

co-formation theory
  نگره‌ی ِ هم-دیسش   
negare-ye ham-diseš

Fr.: théorie de co-formation   

A theory according to which the Earth and Moon formed from the → protoplanetary disk at the same time. See also → giant impact hypothesis, → capture theory, → fission theory.

co-; → formation; → theory.


Fr.: co-orbital   

Of or relating to two or more celestial bodies that share, or almost share, the same orbit.

co-; → orbital.

co-orbital motion
  جنبش ِ هم‌مداری   
jonbeš-e ham-madâri

Fr.: mouvement co-orbital   

The motion of two or more bodies around the Sun on different orbits when it takes them the same amount of time to complete one revolution. There are three possible types of co-orbital motions of a small body associated with a planet: → tadpole orbits, → horseshoe orbits, and → quasi-satellite orbits.

co-orbital; → motion.

co-orbital satellite
  ماهواره‌ی ِ هم‌مدار، بنده‌وار ِ ~   
mâhvâre-ye ham-madâr, bandevâr-e ~

Fr.: satellite co-orbital   

Any of satellites which either share the same orbit or which occupy immediately adjacent orbits that change periodically as the satellites approach one another (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

co-orbital; → satellite.

  هم‌مداری؛ هم‌مدار   
ham-madâri; ham-madâr

Fr.: co-orbitage; c-orbitant, co-orbiteur   

The action or quality of a → co-orbiting asteroid.

From co- "together," → com- + → orbit + → -ing.

From ham- "together," → com- + madârorbit + -i noun suffix.

co-orbiting asteroid
  سیارک ِ هم‌مدار   
sayyârak-e ham-madâr

Fr.: astéroïde co-orbiteur   

An asteroid having a → co-orbital motion.

co-orbiting; → asteroid.

co-rotational limit (CoRol)
  حد ِ هم-چرخشی   
hadd-e ham-carxeši

Fr.: limite co-rotationnelle   

For any rotating planetary body, a thermal limit beyond which the → rotational velocity at the equator intersects the → Keplerian orbital velocity. Beyond this corotation limit, a hot planetary body forms a structure, called a → synestia, with a corotating inner region connected to a disk-like outer region. Beyond this limit a body cannot have a single → angular velocity. It can instead exhibit a range of morphologies with disk-like outer regions. The (CoRoL is a function that depends upon the composition, thermal state, → angular momentum and mass of a body (Simon J. Lock nd Sarah T. Stewart, 2017, arXiv:1705.07858v1).

co-; → rotational; → limit.

  ماسیدن، رچیدن، لخته بستن   
mâsidan, rocidan, laxté bastan

Fr.: coaguler   

1) ( Generally, of liquids, to change into a thickened mass, curdle; congeal.
2) Biology, Medicine: of blood, to form a clot.
3) Physical chemistry: of colloidal particles, to flocculate or cause to flocculate.
4) Astrophysics: of dust grains in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, to grow into larger entities. → dust coagulation.

Mâsidan "to coagulate, clot," originally "of milk, to turn into yogurt," mâst "clotted milk, yogurt;" Gilaki mas, Lori mâs, Kurd. mâzd, mâst, Sangesari must, Baluchi madhagh, mastagh; Mid.Pers. mâs- "to coagulate, become hard;" cf. Skt. mástu- "milk cream," Arm. macum "soar milk," macanim "to clot, congeal."
Rocidan from Lori roc "congealed," rocesse "to congeal, clot."
Laxté bastin lit. "coagulate into (solid) piece," from laxté "piece, part, portion," + bastan "to coagulate, congeal; to bind, shut" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).

  ماسش، رچش، لخته بندی   
mâseš, roceš, laxté bandi

Fr.: coagulation   

Verbal noun from → coagulate.
Physical chemistry: A separation or precipitation of particles from a dispersed state in a colloid solution.
Astrophysics: The mechanism by which dust grains grow into larger entities in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks. → dust coagulation.

Verbal noun from → coagulate.

zoqâlsang (#)

Fr.: charbon, houille   

A black, hard mineral consisting of carbon and various carbon compounds. Coal is formed from the decomposition of ancient plants buried deep in the Earth's crust for millions of years. It is currently the most widely used substance to generate electricity and heat. Its combustion products are used as raw material for a variety of products including cement, asphalt, and plastics. Due to the harmful gases that it releases, the use of coal is constantly being reduced as alternative fuels are found.

M.E. cole, from O.E. col "charcoal, live coal;" (cf. O.Fr. kole, M.Du. cole, Du. kool, O.H.G. chol, Ger. Kohle, from PIE root *g(e)u-lo- "live coal" (cf. Irish gual "coal").

From zoqâl, → charcoal, + sang, → stone.

Coal Sack
  گونی ِ زغال   
Guni-ye Zoqâl (#)

Fr.: sac de charbon   

A prominent → dark nebula visible to the naked eye as a dark patch silhouetted against the starry band of → Milky Way in the Southern sky. It obscures an area of about 5 by 7 degrees on the sky and extends beyond the borders of → Crux into neighboring → constellations → Centaurus and → Musca. It lies at a distance of approximately 500 → light-years.

coal; sack, from M.E., from O.E. sacc, from L. saccus, from Gk. sakkos, of Semitic origin (cf. Heb. saq "sack").

Guni "sack;" zoqâl, → charcoal.


Fr.: fusionner   

To grow together; to come together so as to form one whole, to fuse. → merge; → fusion.

From L. coalescere, from co- + al-, stem of alere "to nourish, make grow" + -esce, from -escere, a suffix conveying an inchoative meaning.

Âhamidan, from â- nuance prefix + ham "together" (Av. hama- "similar, the same;" Skt. samah "even, level, similar, identical;" Gk. hama "together with, at the same time," homos "one and the same," PIE *samos "same," from base *sem- "one, together") + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: coalescence   

1) General: The act or state of growing together, as similar parts; the act of uniting by natural affinity or attraction; the state of being united.
2) Merging of the stars composing a → binary system after having undergone → supernova explosion. General relativity predicts that binary systems of → compact objects will emit energy in the form of → gravitational radiation, and that this loss of energy eventually will lead to the coalescence of the system.

Verbal noun from → coalesce.

coalescence model
  مدل ِ آهمش   
model-e âhameš

Fr.: modèle de coalescence   

A scenario for building up → massive stars through merging of → intermediate-mass protostars. It occurs in the cores of dense stellar clusters that have undergone core contraction due to rapid → accretion of gas with low → specific angular momentum. The required densities are, however, very high, 108 stars pc-3, which are extremely rare (Bonnell et al. 1998, MNRAS 298, 93).

coalescence; → model.

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