An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1358

Fr.: commentateur   

1) A person who makes commentaries.
2) A person who discusses news, sports events, weather, or the like, as on television or radio.

Agent noun from → commentate.

  راه اندازش   

Fr.: rodage   

Putting a telescope or an observing instrument into active service after their final construction.

From L. commissionem "delegation of business," from commissus, p.p. of committere "to bring together," from → com- "together" + mittere "to put, send."

Râhandâzeš, verbal noun from compound verb râhandâxtan "to set in work; to prepare," from râh "way, path" + andâxtan "to cast; to make, do; to throw."

commissioning period
  دوره‌ی ِ راه اندازش   
dowre-ye râhandâzeš

Fr.: période de rodage   

A period during which a newly constructed observing instrument is used for test.

commissioning; → period.


Fr.: commun   

Belonging to or shared by two or more or all in question. → common denominator, → least common multiplier.

From M.E. comun, from O.Fr. comun, from L. communis "in common, public, general, shared by all or many," originally "sharing common duties," akin to munia "duties, public duties, functions," from munus "task, duty, gift."

Hamdâr, literally "possessing together, sharing together," from ham-, → com-, + dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, to possess," from Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

common denominator
  آنامنگر ِ همدار   
ânâmengar-e hamdâr

Fr.: dénominateur commun   

A quantity into which all the denominators of a set of fractions may be divided without a remainder.

common; → denominator.

common fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ همدار   
barxe-ye hamdâr

Fr.: fraction d'entiers   

A fraction written as a/b where a and b are → positive  → integers, as opposed to a → decimal fraction; for example, 5/7. Common fractions are sometimes also called → vulgar fractions.

common; → fraction.

common logarithm
  لگاریتم ِ دهدهی   
logâritm-e dahdahi

Fr.: logarithme décimal   

The logarithm with → base 10. It is known also as the → decimal logarithm, decadic logarithm, or Briggsian logarithm, after Henry Briggs, an English mathematician who pioneered its use.

common; → logarithm; → decimal.

common year
  سال ِ همدار   
sâl-e hamdâr

Fr.: année commune   

A calendar year which is not a → leap year. In the → Gregorian calendar, a year with 365 days divided into 12 → months, and only 28 days in February. In the → Iranian calendar, a year consisting of 365 days with 12 months, and only 29 days in the month of Esfand.

common; → year.

pâtram (#)

Fr.: peuple, foule   

The ordinary people, as distinguished from those with authority, rank, station, etc.; the common people. Also, commonality (

M.E., from M.Fr. comunalte, from comunal- "communal," → common, + -te "-ty," a suffix denoting state, quality, etc.

Mid.Pers. pâtram "common people, commonalty" (MacKenzie), variant pâyram, prefixed from ram "herd, flock," Mod.Pers. ramé "herd, flock."


Fr.: caractère commun, banalité   

The fact or state of being → common or happening often.

common; → -ness.


Fr.: commune   

1) A small group of persons living together, sharing possessions, work, income, etc., and often pursuing unconventional lifestyles.
2) Any community organized for the protection and promotion of local interests, and subordinate to the state (

From M.Fr. commune "free city, group of citizens," from M.L. communia, noun use of neuter plural of L. adj. communis, literally "that which is common," from communis, → common.

Hamdâré, from hamdâr, → common.


Fr.: communiquer   

1a) To impart knowledge of; make known.
1b) To give to another; impart; transmit (as a disease).
2a) To give or interchange thoughts, feelings, information, or the like, by writing, speaking, etc.
2b) To express thoughts, feelings, or information easily or effectively (

From L. communicatus, p.p. of communicare "to share, divide out; impart; inform; join, participate in," literally "to make common," from communis, → common.

Hamdârgandan, literally "to diffuse to the public," from hamdâr, → common, + gan, variant kan "to throw, diffuse" (as in parâgan-, parâgandan "to diffuse, disperse, scatter;" afgandan "to throw; to lay, place;" kandan "to dig; to extract"), from Proto-Ir. *kan- "to throw, place, put, disperse, → scatter" + -dan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: communication   

1) The act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated.
2) The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs (

Verbal noun of → communicate.

  همدارباوری، همدارگرایی   
hamdârbâvari, hamdâgerâyi

Fr.: communisme   

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state (

commune; → -ism.

  همدارگان‌گرا، همدارگان‌باور   
hamdârgângerâ, hamdârgânbâvar

Fr.: communautaire-   

A member of a communistic community; an advocate of such a community.

community; → -ary; → -an.

  همدارگان‌گرایی، همدارگان‌باوری   
hamdârgângerâyi, hamdârgânbâvari

Fr.: communautarisme   

A doctrine or system of social organization that upholds the importance of communities. It tends to lessen the focus on individual rights and increase the focus on communal responsibilities.

communitarian; → -ism.


Fr.: communautaire-   

Of or relating to a community; communal.

community; → -ary.

  ۱) همدارگان؛ ۲) همداری   
1) hamdârgân; 2) hamdâri

Fr.: communauté   

1a) A social group whose members share common characteristics or interests, such as values, identity, and often a common location (e.g. a village, town, or neighborhood).
1b) Ecology: A group of populations of different species (plants and animals) within a specified location in space and time. 2) Common ownership or participation; joint possession.

Ultimately from L. communitas "partnership, society, fellowship," from communis, → common "common, public, general," + -itas, → -ity

Hamdârgân, from hamdâr, → common, + -gân suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, on the model of hamegân, → public.


Fr.: commutation   

General: A substitution, exchange, or interchange.
Electronics: The transfer of current from one channel to another in a gas tube.
Electricity: The reversal of direct current into alternating current.
Math: A commutative operation, where a . b = b . a.

Noun from → commute.

commutation rules
  رزن‌های ِ آموتش   
razanhâ-ye âmuteš

Fr.: règles de commutation   

The specification of commutators of operators that in quantum physics correspond to the coordinates and momenta of a system.

commutation; → rule.

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