An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1358

Fr.: constellation   

A grouping of conspicuous stars that, when seen from Earth, form an apparent pattern. The sky is divided into 88 constellations. → asterism.

From O.Fr. constellation, from L.L. constellationem (nom. constellatus) "set with stars," from L. → com- "with" + p.p. of stellare "to shine," from stella, → star.

Hamaxtarân, from ham- "with, together" + axtarstar + -ân suffix denoting group.


Fr.: constituant   

1) Forming part of a whole; component.
2) Politics, law: Having the power to frame a constitution or to constitute a government; a person who appoints another to act for him, as by power of attorney.
3) Linguistics: A word, phrase, or clause forming a part of a larger construction (

constitute; → -ent.


Fr.: constituer   

1) To make up; form; compose.
2) To appoint to an office or function.
3) To set up (a school or other institution) formally; found.
4) Law: To give legal form to (a court, assembly, etc.) (

From L. constitutus, p.p. of constituere "to cause to stand, set up, fix, place, establish, set in order; form something new," from → com- an intensive prefix + statuere "to set," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." cf. Pers. istâdan "to stand," → opposition.

Âsâtidan, from intensive prefix â- + sât variant of sâz-/sâxtan "to build, make, prepare," cf. Gazi sât- "to be reconciled with," Abyaneyi, Abuzeydâbâdi, Nâyini, Târi. sâta-/sâj-, Anâraki, Varzeneyi sâte-/sâj-, Ardestâni sûtte/sûj-, Hamadâni satän/saj-, Esfahâni satän/saz-, Jowšaqâni bam-sa:t- "to do, build," Xonsâri sât-/sâz-, Mahalâti sât/sâj- "to prepare, do;" Mid.Pers. sac, saz- "to be fitting, becoming, necessary," sac-, sâz- "to make, prepare;" Mod.Pers. sâz-, sâxtan "to build, construct, prepare;" cf. Skt. śak- "to be able, capable;" Proto-Ir. sac- "to fit, be suitable, be able, be in command of; to prepare" (Cheung, 2006).


Fr.: constitution   

1) The act or process of composing, setting up, or establishing.
2) The system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of a government or another institution (

Verbal noun of → constitution.


Fr.: constitutionnel   

1) Of or relating to a constitution.
2) Consistent with, sanctioned by, or permissible according to a constitution (

constitution; → -al.


Fr.: constitutif   

1) Making a thing what it is; essential.
2) Having power to institute, establish, or enact.

constitite; → -ive.

  پاوندیدن، پاوند کردن   
pâvandidan, pâvand kardan

Fr.: contraindre   

To confine forcibly, as by bonds; to force, compel, or oblige; to repress or restrain. → constrained body, → constrained system.


constrained body
  جسم ِ پاوندیده   
jesm-e pâvandidé

Fr.: corps lié   

A → rigid body whose displacement is prevented because it is under → constraint or a body that can move only in certain directions. Contrasted with → free body.

Constrained, p.p. of → constrain; → body.

constrained system
  راژمان ِ پاوندیده   
râžmân-e pâvandidé

Fr.: système contraint   

Opposite of a → free system. See also → constraint.

Constrained, p.p. of → constrain; → system.

pâvand (#)

Fr.: contrainte   

1) General: Limitation or restriction.
2) Mechanics: Any restriction imposed on the position or motion of a material system. Constraints are said to be internal if they do not impede free displacement of the system. All other kinds of constraints are called external. Systems subject only to internal constraints are free material systems.
3) Physics: A fact or condition, usually observational, that allows to reduce the number of free parameters in a theoretical model.

M.E. constreinte, from M.F., from constreindre, from L. constringere "to bind together, tie tightly," from → com- "together" + stringere "to bind, draw tight."

Pâvand "fetter, shackle," from "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Khotanese fad; Av. pad-; cf. Skt. pat-, Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + vand, variant band "tie, band," (Mod.-Mid./Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).


Fr.: constringence   

Same as → Abbe number.

Noun from → constrain.

constructive interference
  اندرزنش ِ سازنده   
andarzaneš-e sâznadé

Fr.: interférence constructive   

An → interference process in which the → amplitude of the resultant wave is greater than that of either individual waves. See also → destructive interference.

Constructive, from M.Fr. constructif or from M.L. constructivus, from L. construct-, p.p. stem of construere "to heap up," from → con- + struc- variant stem of struere "to build," → structure; → interference.

Andarzaneš, → interference; sâzandé "constructive," from sâxtan, → structure.

  هگاردن، رای زدن   
hagârdan, rây zadan (#)

Fr.: consulter   

To seek advice or information from; ask guidance from.

From M.Fr. consulter, from L. consultere "to deliberate, consult," frequentative of consulere "to consult, deliberate, consider, ask advice," from → com- "together" + -sulere, from PIE *selh- "to take, grab," cognate with E. sell, sold.

Hagârdan, from ha-, variant of ham- "together," → com-, + gâr "to observe, consider," variants gar-, gâl- (as in engâridan "to suppose," negaristan "to observe, look, notice," segâlidan "to think, discuss, consider") ultimately from Proto-Ir. *kar- "to observe, consider," cf. Av. kar- "to remember, to impress on memory," Skt. kal- "to observe, conside," kalayati "considers, observes;" see also âgâridan, → consider.

  ۱) هگارگر؛ ۲) هگارنده   
1) hagârgar; 2) hagârande

Fr.: consultant   

1) A person who provides professional or expert advice.
2) A person who consults another.

Agent noun with suffix → -ant.


Fr.: consultation   

The act or procedure of consulting.

Verbal noun from → consult.

gosârdan (#)

Fr.: consommer   

1) To use up, spend. See also → expend.
2) To eat or drink.

M.E., from O.Fr. consumer "to consume" and directly from L. consumere "to use up, eat, waste," from → com-, intensive prefix, + sumere "to take," from → sub- "under" + emere "to buy, take," from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute;" cf. Skt. yam- "to hold," Av. yam- "to hold, keep," → expend.

Gosârdan "to consume, drink; dissipate, wipe out; let go," probably from Proto-Ir. *ui-sard-, from *sard- "to smear, rub;" cf. Khotanese (+*ā-) esaly "to besmear;" Kurd. sirīn "to wipe," sirewe "to wipe out, erase;" Oss. særdyn "to smear."


Fr.: consommation   

1) The act of consuming.
2) The amount consumed.

Verbal noun of → consume.

  ۱) پرماس؛ ۲) پرماسیدن   
1) parmâs (#); 2) parmâsidan (#)

Fr.: 1) contact; 2) contacter, toucher   

1a) The act or state of touching or being in immediate proximity, as in a → contact binary.
1b) One of the instances when the apparent position of the edges of the Sun and the Moon cross one another during an eclipse. They are designated as the → first contact, → second contact, → third contact, and → fourth contact. See also → contact binary, → last contact.
2a) (v. intr.) To be in or come into contact.
2b) ( To bring or put in contact.

From L. contactus "a touching," p.p. of contingere "to touch," from → com- "together" + tangere "to touch."

Parmâs "contact, touching," stem of parmâsidan "to touch, feel," from *pari-mars-, from Indo-Iranian *pari- "around" (O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," Skt. pari) + *mars- "to touch; to wipe, rub," Mid.Pers. marz "contact, touching," marzitan "to touch," Mod.Pers. mâlidan "to rub," Av. marəz- "to rub, wipe," marəza- "border, district," Skt. mrś- "to touch," mrśáti; L. mulceo "to caress," margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin.

contact binary
  دورین ِ پرماسی   
dorin-e parmâsi

Fr.: binaire de contact   

1) A → binary star system in which the two → components are so close that they exchange gases in a complex manner. Their overlapping → gravitational fields form a "peanut" shaped → equipotential surface.
2) Two roughly similar-sized asteroids or cometary nuclei resting on one another, presumably after coming together very gently. Examples are → Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the asteroid → (486958) 2014 MU69.

contact; → binary.


Fr.: contenir   

To hold or keep within its volume or area.

M.E. conte(y)nen, from O.Fr. contenir, from L. continere "to hold together, enclose," from → com- "together" + tenere "to hold."

Parbanidan, constructed from Mid.Pers. parvand-, parvastan "to include, contain," from variant parband- and dropping the end d, as occurs in several dialects; from par- "around," → peri-, + ban-, van-, band, vand, bastan, → band, + -idan infinitive suffix; related to parvandé, → file.

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