An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1358

Fr.: catastrophisme   

The doctrine that certain vast geological changes in the Earth's history were caused by sudden, short-lived, violent events rather than gradual evolutionary processes. Catastrophism explains the differences in → fossil forms encountered in successive → stratigraphic levels. This doctrine is associated with the French naturalist Baron Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). Catastrohism is contrasted to the → uniformitarianism.

catastrophe; → -ism.

  کتاگری، کتاگریک   
katâgori, katâgorik

Fr.: catégorique   

1) Unambiguously explicit and direct, without exceptions or conditions.
2) Relating to or included in a → category.
3) Logic: Of a → proposition (→ syllogism), consisting of a → subject and a → predicate, each of which denotes a class, and having one of the → Aristotelian forms.

category; → -ic; → -al.

categorical proposition
  گزاره‌ی ِ کتاگریک   
gozâre-ye katâgorik

Fr.: proposition catégorique   

In a → syllogism, a → proposition or statement that deals with inclusion or exclusion of members of → subject classes in → predicate classes. Categorical propositions are of four basic forms, see → Aristotelian form.

categorical; → proposition.

categorical syllogism
  باهمشماری ِ کتاگریک   
bâhamšomâri-ye katâgorik

Fr.: syllogisme catégirique   

A standard → syllogism that consists of three → categorical propositions in which there are three terms, and each term appears exactly twice. The three terms in a standard categorical syllogism are the → major term, → mino term, and → middle term.

categorical; → syllogism.


Fr.: catégorise   

To place in a → category or class.

category; → -ize.


Fr.: catégorie   

1) A group of things that are similar in some way.
2a) Philo.: In Aristotelian logic, any of the ten different ways (substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, possession, doing, and undergoing) in which the subject of a proposition may relate to its predicate. For example, the proposition "All men are mortal" belongs to the Category of Quality since it tells us what "all men" are like, namely mortal.
2b) Philo.: In Kant's system, any of the twelve (four groups of three each) pure concepts of the understanding that constitute necessary conditions of experience and correspond with the classes of judgements treated in formal logic. According to Kant, the categories are results of the mind's activity, and are distinguished from sensation. The categories have, furthermore, like space and time relations, a peculiar universality. They are, in other words, a priori.
3) Math.: An entity consisting of a class of objects and a class of → morphisms between those objects that satisfy certain properties.

M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategoria, from kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata "down, against, back," → cata-, + agorein "to speak before public assembly," from agora "marketplace, public square" (from ageirein "to gather"); cognate with L. grex, gregis "herd, troop, crowd;" Skt. gramah- "heap, crowd, community;" Old Icelandic kremja "to squeeze;" O.E. crammian "to cram;" Latvian  gùrste "bundle of flask;" Polish garnac "to gather;" Russ. gorst' "cupped hand;" cf. Pers. gor-, gal-, etc., as below; PIE base *ger- "to gather."

Katâgor, from katâ-, → cata-, + gor- "to gather," ultimately from PIE *ger-, as above. We put forward that the following Iranian words derive from the above PIE base *ger- "to gather":
goruh "crowd, troop, band;"
gallé (conversion of r to l) "herd, flock;"
jarra (Laki) "group; stick bundle;"
gerd in gerd âvardan "to collect, bring together" probably not related to gerd "round, circular;"
xalam (štiyâni) "herd, flock;"
xelima (Qâyeni) "herd;"
korand, korang "a ring made by hunters or troops;"
korka (Laki) "bundle of harvested ears of wheat;"
gola, golé "bundle of hair; bunch"
gola-gâh "place of gathering;"
gurâb "market place in a village, agora;"
There are dozens of villages all-over Iran named Gorâb, Gurâb, Gela, Gola, Gala and their combinations with other words (e.g. Galadeh, Galazan, Galavand) that probably refer to places of gathering.
One can also mention village names such as Agora, Gore, Gere(kalâ), Garaku, Oger, and so on in Mâzandarân;
Khotanese (prefixed ham-) gris "to assemble."

category theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کتاگر   
negare-ye katâgor

Fr.: théorie des catégories   

A theory that deals with the concept of → category and generalizes the → set theory.

category; → theory.

kâtod (#)

Fr.: cathode   

A negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device.

Gk. kathodos "descent, a way down," from kata- "down" + hodos "way, path."

cathode ray
  پرتو ِ کاتودی   
partw-e kâtodi (#)

Fr.: rayon cathodique   

A kind of ray generated at the cathode in a vacuum tube, by the electrical discharge.

cathode; →ray.

catholic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ هرگانی   
ostorlâb-e hargâni

Fr.: astrolabe catholique   

Same as → universal astrolabe.

Catholic, M.E., from Fr. catholique, from Church Latin catholicus "universal, general," from Gk. katholikos, from phrase kath' holou "on the whole, in general," from kata "about," → cata-, + genitive of holos "whole," → holo-; → astrolabe.

Ostorlâb, → astrolabe; hargâni, → universal.

kâtion (#)

Fr.: cation   

Chemistry: A → positively charged → ion that is attracted to the → cathode in electrolysis. Any positively charged atom or group of atoms (opposed to → anion).

From cat-, → cathod, + → ion.

catoptric light
  نور ِ بازتابیک   
nur-e bâztâbik

Fr.: lumière catoptrique   

Light that is reflected from a curved surface mirror.

catoprtics; → light.

catoptric system
  راژمان ِ بازتابیک   
râžmân-e bâztâbik

Fr.: système catoprtique   

An optical system in which the light is reflected only.

catoprtics; → system.


Fr.: catroptique   

The area of → optics which treats of the laws and properties of light reflected from reflective surfaces.

From Gk. katoptrikos, from katoptron "mirror" (from kat-, → cata-, + op- "to see," → optics, + -tron suffix of instruments) + -ikos, → -ics.

Bâztâbik, from bâztâb, → reflection, + -ik, → -ics.

dâm (#)

Fr.: bétail   

Domesticated quadrupeds held on a farm, especially oxen, bulls, and cows.

M.E. catel, from M.Fr. catel "property" (O.Fr. chatel), from M.L. capitale "property, stock," from L. capitalis "principal, chief," literally "of the head," from caput, → head.

Dâm, originally "nonferocious animal," especially "herbivorous quadrupeds such as cows, sheep, etc.;" Mid.Pers. dâm "creature, creation;" O.Pers. dā- "to put, make, create;" Av. dā- "to place, put, create," dāmay- "creation; creating; creator," dāmi.dāt- "creating the creation;" cf. Skt. dhā- "to put, to place;" Gk. tithemi "to put, to place;" L. facere "to do;" O.H.G. tuon; E. to do.

Cauchy's equation
  هموگش ِ کوشی   
hamugeš-e Cauchy

Fr.: équation de Cauchy   

A relationship between the → refractive index (n) and the wavelength of light (λ) passing through a medium. It is commonly stated in the following form: n = A + B2 + C4, where A, B, and C are constants characterizing the medium. The two-component Cauchy equation is n = A + B2, from which the dispersion becomes dn/dλ = -2B3 showing that dispersion varies approximately as the inverse cube of the wavelength. The dispersion at 4000 A will be about 8 times as large as at 8000 Å.

Named after Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857), French mathematician and physicist who found the first equation of dispersion in 1836; → equation.

Cauchy's theorem
  فربین ِ کوشی   
farbin-e Cauchy

Fr.: théorème de Cauchy   

If f(x) and φ(x) are two → continuous functions on the → interval [a,b] and → differentiable within it, and φ'(x) does not vanish anywhere inside the interval, there will be found, in [a,b], some point x = c, such that [f(b) - f(a)] / [φ(b) - φ(a)] = f'(c) / φ'(c).

Cauchy's equation; → theorem.

  بناری، بنارمند   
bonârmand, bonâri

Fr.: causal   

Of, involving, or constituting a cause; indicative of or expressing a cause.

Adj. from → cause.

causal structure
  ساختار ِ بنارمند   
sâxtâr-e bonârmand

Fr.: structure causale   

In → special relativity, the causal relationship between → events involving a → light cone.

causal; → structure.


Fr.: causalité   

The relationship between causes and effects

Causality, from → causal + -ity.

Bonârmandi, from bonârcause + -mand suffix denoting relation, affinity + -i noun forming suffix.

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