An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 968
absolute viscosity
  وشکسانی ِ اوست   
vošksâni-ye avast

Fr.: viscosité absolue   

Same as → viscosity and → dynamic viscosity.

absolute; → viscosity.

absolute zero
  صفر ِ ا َوَست   
sefr-e avast

Fr.: zéro absolu   

The → zero point of the → Kelvin scale of → temperature; the theoretical point at which all molecular activity ceases, -273.16 °C.

absolute; → zero.

absorb
  درشمیدن   
daršamidan

Fr.: absorber   

1) General: To suck up or take up.
2) Physics: To retain → energy (radiation or sound, for example) or → matter wholly, without → reflection or → transmission.

M.Fr. absorber, from L. absorbere "to swallow up," from ab- "from" + sorbere "suck in;" PIE root *srebh- "to suck, absorb;" cf. Arm. arbi "I drank;" Gk. rhophein "to sup up, gulp down;" Lith. srebiu "to drink greedily;" Proto-Iranian *hrab- "to sip, suck (in)," cf. Pashto raw-, Shaghni râv-, Sariqoli rov-, Ishkashimi ruv- "to suck" (Cheung 2007), Pers. (prefixed) zâlu "leech."

Daršamidan, from daršam, from dar- "in, into" + šam, variant of šâm, as in âšâm, âšâmidan "to drink, to sip;" Av. šam- "to drink, sip, swallow;" Skt. cam, camati "to sip, drink, lick up, absorb."

absorbable
  درشمیدنی   
daršamidani

Fr.: absorbable   

Capable of being absorbed.

Absorbable, adj. from → absorb + → -able.

Daršamidani adj. from aršamidan "to absorb" + -i, → -able.

absorbance
  درشمندگی   
daršamandegi

Fr.: absorbance   

The ability of a solution or a layer of a substance to absorb → radiation, i.e. the ratio of the intensity of the light incident on the solution to the intensity transmitted by it, in logarithmic scale.

absorb; → -ance.

absorbent
  درشمنده   
daršamandé

Fr.: absorbant   

1) Any material or → substance that → absorbs.
2) Relating to or capable of → absorption.

Absorbent, from → absorb + -ent.

Daršamandé from aršam present stem of daršamidan, → absorb, + -andé suffix forming adj. and/or agent name.

absorber
  درشمگر   
daršamgar

Fr.: absorbeur   

Any medium that absorbs something.

absorb; → -er.

absorbing wedge
  گُوه‌ی ِ درشمنده   
gove-ye daršamandé

Fr.: coin absorbant   

Optics: A strip or annulus of material, such as glass or film, whose density increases progressively from one end to the other. The function of the wedge is to weaken the light beam in an optical system.

Verbal adj. from → absorb; → wedge.

absorption
  درشم   
daršam

Fr.: absorption   

1) General: The process or fact of absorbing.
2) Physics: The action of energy or matter penetrating or being assimilated into a body of matter with no reflection or emission. → adsorption, → desorption, → sorption.
See also: → absorption band, → absorption coefficient, → absorption curve, → absorption feature, → absorption line, → absorption nebula, → absorption spectrum, → atmospheric absorption, → discrete absorption component, → foreground absorption, → intergalactic absorption, → internal absorption, → interstellar absorption, → mass absorption coefficient, → photoabsorption, → selective absorption, → self-absorption.

Verbal noun of → absorb; → -tion, from L. absorptionem.

absorption band
  باند ِ درشمی   
bând-e daršami

Fr.: bande d'absorption   

1) A series of very closely spaced absorption lines in stellar spectra resulting from the absorption of light by molecules. Bands caused by titanium oxide (→ TiO bands) and carbon compounds occur in the spectra of low temperature M and C stars.
2) A range of wavelengths, usually in electromagnetic radiation, that are absorbed by a given substance. Absorption bands are characteristic of molecules and correspond to changes of electron orbits in the molecules. See also → anomalous dispersion.

absorption; → band.

absorption coefficient
  همگر ِ درشم   
hamgar-e daršam

Fr.: coefficient d'absorption   

The fraction of normally incident light that is absorbed per unit path length or by a unit mass of absorbing medium.

absorption; → coefficient.

absorption curve
  خم ِ درشم   
xam-e daršam

Fr.: courbe d'absorption   

A graphic representation of the amount of radiant energy absorbed by a material as a function of the wavelength.

absorption; → curve.

absorption feature
  آرنگ ِ درشم   
ârang-e daršam

Fr.: motif d'absorption   

A dip in a spectrum indicating that light has been absorbed on the path from the emitting source to the observer. It may be a line, corresponding to a well-defined atomic or molecular transition, or a more complex feature whose physical origin is not necessarily understood.

absorption; → feature.

absorption line
  خط ِ درشمی   
xatt-e daršami

Fr.: raie d'absorption   

A dark line in the spectrum of a source produced by a lower temperature gas cloud lying between the source and the observer.

absorption; → line.

absorption nebula
  میغ ِ درشمی   
miq-e daršami

Fr.: nébuleuse par absorption, nébuleuse obscure   

A dark cloud of dust and gas that absorbs light from and impedes the view of background stars; dark nebula.

absorption; → nebula.

absorption spectrum
  بیناب ِ درشمی   
binâb-e daršami

Fr.: spectre d'absorption   

A spectrum of absorption lines or bands, produced when light from a hot source, itself producing a continuous spectrum, passes through a cooler gas.

absorption; → spectrum.

absorptivity
  درشما‌یی   
daršamâyi

Fr.: absorptivité   

The ratio of energy absorbed by a body to energy incident upon the same body.

Absorptivity, from absorptive adj. from → absorb + → -ity, suffix expressing state or condition.

Daršamâyi, from daršamâ quality adj. from daršam, present stem of daršamidan + -yi noun suffix.

absorptivity-emissivity ratio
  وابر ِ درشما‌یی-گسیلا‌یی   
vâbar-e daršamâyi/gosilâyi

Fr.: rapport absorptivité-émissivité   

For a spatial object, the ratio between its absorption of solar radiation and its infrared emission.

absorptivity; → emissivity; → ratio.

abstain
  پرهیزیدن، پرهیز کردن   
parhizidan, parhiz kardan

Fr.: s'abstenir   

To keep oneself from doing or partaking of something; refrain. → avoid.

M.E. absteynen, absteinen, abstenen, from O.Fr. abstiner, abstenir, astenir "hold (oneself) back, refrain voluntarily," from L. abstinere / abstenere "withhold, keep back," from → ab-"off, away from" + tenere "to hold," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch," → tension.

Parhiz, from Mid.Pers. pahrêzidan, pahrêxtan "to keep away from, abstain," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *pati-raic-, from prefix *pati- + *raic- "to leave, let abandon;" cf. Av. raēc- "to leave, let;" Pers. (+ *ui-) gorêz-, goriz-, gorixtan "to run away, flee;" Skt. rec- "to leave, release;" Gk. leipo "I let;" L. linquô "I leave;" PIE base *leikw- "to leave, let."

abstinence
  پرهیز   
parhiz (#)

Fr.: abstinence   

The act or practice of abstaining from indulging a desire or appetite.

Verbal noun of → abstain.

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