An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 968
artificial
  ساختگی   
sâxtegi (#)

Fr.: artificiel   

Not occurring naturally; produced by man.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. artificialis "belonging to art," from artificium "craftsmanship."

Sâxtegi "artificial," from sâxtan "to build, to make," → structure.

artificial horizon
  افق ِ ساختگی   
ofoq-e sâxtegi

Fr.: horizon artificiel   

A shallow flat vessel filled with → mercury or some other viscous → liquid used in special → sextant for measuring altitudes of celestial bodies at sea in the absence of a → visible horizon.

artificial; → horizon.

artificial language
  زبان ِ ساختگی   
zabân-e sâxtegi

Fr.: langue artificielle   

An artificially created language system for international communication or for a specific intellectual or scientific purpose. Examples include Esperanto, computer programing languages, → symbolic logic, and → tensor analysis.

artificial; → language.

artificial light
  نور ِ ساختگی   
nur-e sâxtegi

Fr.: lumière artificielle   

Any light other than that which proceeds from the heavenly bodies.

artificial; → light.

artificial satellite
  ماهواره   
mâhvâré (#)

Fr.: satellite artificiel   

A man-made equipment that orbits around Earth or a solar system body.

artificial; → satellite.

artificial star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ساختگی   
setâre-ye sâxtegi

Fr.: étoile artificielle   

In → adaptive optics, a point source created on the sky by means of a laser beam in order to correct for the → atmospheric turbulence. A laser tuned to the wavelength of 589 nm will excite sodium atoms at an altitude of ~ 100 km in the Earth's atmosphere, producing an artificial "star."

artificial; → star.

asbestos
  پنبه‌ی ِ کوهی، ~ نسوز   
panbe-ye kuhi (#), ~ nasuz (#)

Fr.: aminate   

A family of fibrous mineral silicates that are incombustible, resistant to chemicals, and do not conduct electricity. In the past asbestos has been widely used for a range of fireproof materials and in the building industry. Asbestos causes very serious health problems if the fibers are inhaled (bronchial cancer, laryngeal cancer, and mesothelioma).

M.E. albeston, abestus, from O.Fr. abeste, abestos, from L. asbestos "quicklime," from Gk. asbestos, literally "inextinguishable," from → a- "not" + sbestos, verbal adjective from sbennynai "to quench."

Panbe-ye kuhi, literally "mountain cotton," from panbé, → cotton, + kuhi "pertaining to mountains," from kuh, → mountain.
Panbe-ye nasuz, literally "non-inflammable cotton," from panbé + nasuz "non-inflammable," from na- "not," → a- + suz-, suxtan, → burn.

ascend
  فرازیدن   
farâzidan (#)

Fr.: monter, s'élever   

1) To move, climb, or go upward; mount; rise.
2) To rise to a higher point, rank, or degree; proceed from an inferior to a superior degree or level (Dictionary.com).

M.E. ascenden, from L. ascendere "to climb up, mount," from → ad- "to" + scandere "to climb," → scan.

Farâzidan, from farâz "above, over, aloft."

ascendant
  فرازان   
farâzân

Fr.: ascendant   

1a) A position or condition of dominance, superiority or control.
1b) An ancestor; forebear.
2a) Ascending; rising.
2b) superior; predominant.

ascend.

ascending node
  گره ِ فرازشی   
gereh-e farâzeši

Fr.: nœud ascendant   

The point in an orbit where the orbiting body crosses a reference plane, such as the ecliptic or the celestial equator, going from south to north. The celestial longitude of the ascending node is one of the elements of the orbit. → descending node.

ascend; → -ing; → node.

ascension
  فرازش   
farâzeš

Fr.: ascension   

The act of ascending; ascent.

Verbal noun of → ascend; → -tion.

ASCII
  اسکی   
ASCII

Fr.: ASCII   

A standard code or protocol for displaying → characters as numbers. Each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined. For example, the ASCII code for uppercase C is 67 and for lowercase c is 99. Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another.

Short for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ash
  خاکستر   
xâkestar (#)

Fr.: cendre   

The powdery residue that remains after something is burnt. → ashen light.

M.E. a(i)sshe; O.E. asce, æsce; cf. Frisian esk, Dutch asch, O.N., O.H.G. aska, Ger. Asche; akin to Gk. azein "to dry up, parch," L. arere "be dry," → arid, Skt. asa- "ashes," PIE root *as- "to burn, glow."

Xâkestar, ultimately from Proto-Iranian *aika-âtar- literally "fire dust," from *aika- (Pers. xâk "dust, earth," → soil) + *ātar- (Pers. âzar, âtaš, → fire); cf. Malâyeri xâkesar, Qasrâni xâksar.

ashen light
  نور ِ خاکستری   
nur-e xâkestari (#)

Fr.: lumière cendrée   

The faint glow occasionally observed on the unlit area of Venus in its crescent phase. Its cause is not known with certainty, but it might result from bombardment of atmospheric atoms and molecules by energetic particles and radiation, as with terrestrial airglow.

ash; → light.

Asia
  آسیا   
Âsiyâ (#)

Fr.: Asie   

The largest of the world's continents (about 41,440,000 sq. km.), bounded by Europe and the Arctic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.

From L. Asia, from Gk. Asia, apparently first used by Herodotus (about 440 BC) in reference to Anatolia or to the Persian Empire, in contrast to Greece and Egypt. Of uncertain origin.

aspect
  نمود   
nemud (#)

Fr.: aspect   

The apparent position of a body in the Solar System relative to the Sun, as seen from Earth. The main aspects are conjunction, greatest elongation, opposition, and quadrature.

Aspect from L. aspectus "looking, view, appearance," p.p. of aspicere "to look at," from ad- "to" + specere "to look," cognate with Gk. skeptesthai "to examine, consider," Av. spas- "to watch, look," Skt. spaz "to see, behold, look at;" PIE *spek- "to observe, look".

Nemud from nemudan "to show, demonstrate, exhibit, appear"

Aspect experiment
  آزمایش ِ اسپه   
âzmâyeš-e Aspect

Fr.: expérience d'Aspect   

A series of experiments carried out in the early 1980s by Alain Aspect and his colleagues that showed the violation of → Bell's inequality. Accordingly, quantum phenomena cannot be described by the → hidden variable theories, contrarily to the → EPR paradox interpretation.

Alain Aspect (1947-); → experiment. Aspect et al., 1982, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 49, No. 25 and references therein.

asperity
  زفتی   
zafti

Fr.: aspérité   

1) Roughness or unevenness of surface.
2) Physics: A microscopic projection on a metal surface resulting from normal surface finishing processes.
3) Geology: A site on a → fault surface where the two sides are held together by an area of higher strength than the areas surrounding it. When the stress on the fault exceeds the strength of the asperity, the asperity fails as an → earthquake.

M.E. asperite, from O.Fr. asperité "difficulty, painful situation," from L. asperitas, from asper "rough, harsh," of unknown origin.

From zaft "thick, gross, rude," (Steingass, Dehxodâ), + noun suffix -i.

assembly
  همایش   
hamâyeš (#)

Fr.: assemblée   

A company of persons gathered for a common reason, as for deliberation, legislation, worship, or entertainment.
The act of assembling; the state of being assembled.

M.E. assemblee, from M.Fr., from O.Fr., from assembler "to gather together."

Hamâyeš, from ham- "together," → com- + âyeš "coming," from ây- present stem of âmadan "to come;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" cf. Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" Gk. eimi "I go," L. ire "to go, walk," eo "I go;" Tokharian AB i-; PIE *ei- "to go, to walk."

assert
  ستواردن   
sotvârdan

Fr.: affirmer   

To state with assurance, confidence, or force; state strongly or positively; affirm.

From L. assertus, p.p. of asserere/adserere "to claim, lay claim to, declare," from → ad- "to" + serere "to join together, range in a row," from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up."

Sotvârdan from sotvâr, ostovâr "firm, reliable," Mid.Pers. awestwâr, ôst "firm, reliable," O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand; set," (Av. hištaiti, cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand," Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still," L. stare "to stand"); PIE base *sta- "to stand."

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