# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 968
 Argand diagram   نمودار ِ ارگان   nemudâr-e ArgandFr.: diagramme d'Argand   A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram. Argelander method   روش ِ آرگلاندر   raveš-e ArgelanderFr.: méthode d'Argelander   A technique to estimate the brightness of a → variable star. It involves comparing the variable with a sequence of neighboring stars of slightly different → magnitudes.Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method. Argo (Argo Navis; Ship Argo)   کشتی   Kašti (#)Fr.: Navire Argo   An extensive constellation, one of the 48 constellations known to Greeks, representing the ship of Argonauts. It was divided in 18th century into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, and → Vela.The ship in which Jason sailed in search of the Golden Fleece.Kašti "ship," from Mid.Pers. kaštik. argol   لرد   lerd (#)Fr.: tartre   A generally reddish matter that settles from a liquid, especially from wine. Same as → tartar.M.E. argul, argoile, from M.Fr. argoil, from L. argilla "argil."Lerd ou lert "the sediment of liquids, dregs, lees" (Dehxodâ). argon   آرگون   ârgon (#)Fr.: argon   A → chemical element which occurs as a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in the atmosphere (of which it constitutes 0.94% by volume) and in some volcanic gases; symbol Ar. → Atomic number 18; → atomic weight 39.948; → melting point -189.2°C; → boiling points -185.7°C.Argon, from Gk. neutral of argos "inactive, idle, lazy," from negation prefix → a- + ergon "work," → energy. It was discovered in 1895 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English physicist Robert John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) in liquified atmospheric air. argue   آروزیدن   âruzidan (#)Fr.: argumenter   To put forth reasons for or against.→ argument. argument   آروزمان   âruzmân (#)Fr.: argument   1) General: A discussion involving differing points of view; debate; a process of reasoning; series of reasons. 2a) Math.: The → independent variable of a → function. 2b) Math.: The → angle of a → complex number measured from the positive horizontal axis. 3) Astro.: → argument of periapsis, → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion. 4a) Logic: A sequence of → propositions with one or more → premises and a → conclusion. Arguments are usually divided into two kinds, → deductive and → inductive. 4b) Logic: A → propositional symbol (→ variable or → constant) taken by a → predicate in an → atomic wff.M.E., from M.Fr., from L. argmentum, from arguere "to make clear." Compare with L. argentum "silver," Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," Av. auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"), Av. ərəzata- "silver," Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."Âruzmân, from Av. āroc- "to enlighten, make light," Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" + noun forming suffix -mân. argument of periapsis   آروزمان ِ پیراهباک   âruzmân-e pirâhabâkFr.: argument du périastre   The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.→ argument; → perigee. argument of perigee   آروزمان ِ پیرازم   âruzmân-e pirâzamFr.: argument du périgée   The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Earth and its perigee, measured from the Earth. See also: → argument of perihelion, → argument of periapsis.→ argument; → perigee. argument of perihelion   آروزمان ِ پیراهور   âruzmân-e pirâhurFr.: argument du périhélie   The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.→ argument; → perihelion. argumentation   آروزش   âruzešFr.: argumentation   The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments.Noun from → argument. argumentative   آروزمانگین   âruzmânginFr.: raisonneur   1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute. 2) Of or characterized by argument; controversial.→ argue; → -ive arid   کماب   kamâb (#)Fr.: aride   Lacking sufficient water or rainfall.L. aridus, from arere "to be dry, i.e. burnt up"; compare with Gk. azaleos "dry," PIE *as- "to burn, glow".Kamâb, from Mod.P. kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + âb "water". aridity   کمابی   kamâbi (#)Fr.: aridité   A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture.Aridity, noun from → arid.Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid. Ariel (Uranus I)   آریل   Ariel (#)Fr.: Ariel   A satellite of → Uranus discovered by Lassell in 1851. It is orbiting at a mean distance of 192,000 kilometers with a period of 2.52 days.Ariel, a spirit in William Shakespeare's The Tempest. Aries   بره   Barré (#)Fr.: Bélier   The Ram. A constellation of the → Zodiac, representing a ram (R.A. = 2h 30m, Dec. = +13 deg). Its brightest star is → Hamal (α Arietis). Abbreviation: Ari; genitive form: Arietis.L. aries "ram," perhaps akin to Gk. eriphos "a kid, a young goat," O.Ir. heirp "she-goat;" cf. Lith. erytis, O.C.S. jarici, Arm. oroj "lamb."Barré "ram, sheep; Aries" from Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb, ram; Aries," compare with Av. varənâ- "wool," Skt. urana, urabhra "wool-beared = ram," from urna "wool," L. vervex "a wether, sheep". Aristarchus' inequality   ناهموگی ِ اریستارخوس   nâhamugi-ye AristarchusFr.: inégalité d'Aristarque   Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is.Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality. Aristotelian form   دیسه‌ی ِ ارسطویی   dise-ye ArastuyiFr.: forme aristotelienne   Any of the four main → proposition forms treated in Aristotle's → syllogism: The A form (universal affirmative): All P's are Q's, The E form (universal negative): No P's are Q's, The I form (particular affirmative): Some P's are Q's, and The O form (particular negative) Some P's are not Q's.Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC); → form. arithmetic   حساب   hesâb (#)Fr.: arithmétique   A branch of mathematics that deals usually with integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. See also → compute, → computation, → count, → calculate, → calculus, → mathematics, → statistics.O.Fr. arsmetique, from M.L. arithmetica, from Gk. arithmetike (tekhne) "(art, skill) of numbers," from arithmos "number."Hesâb, from Ar. hisab. arithmetic mean   میانگین ِ حسابی   miyângin hesâbi (#)Fr.: moyenne arithmétique   Of n numbers a1, a2, ..., an, the quantity defined as: (a1 + a2 + ... + an)/n.→ arithmetic; → mean.