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aeolipile ayolipulé Fr.: éolipyle A round vessel pivoted on a central axis that rotates by the force of internal steam escaping from two diametrically opposed narrow apertures. Aeolipile, first described by Hero of Alexandria (c. 10-70 AD), is an early example of → jet propulsion. L aeolipila, from Gk aiolipyle, from Aiolon pyle, fr. aioli-, from Aiolos "god of wind," + pyle "gate." |
aeon âyu Fr.: éon 1) General: An indefinitely long period of time; an age. L. aeon, from Gk. aion "age, eternity;" akin to Av. āiiu- "duration, period, lifetime;" Skt. áyu- "life, longevity." Âyu, from Av. āiiu- "duration, period, lifetime" (Sogd. āy "life, age"), as above. |
aerodynamic havâtavânik Fr.: aérodynamique Of or pertaining to → aerodynamics. → aerodynamics. |
aerodynamic force niru-ye havâtavânik Fr.: force aérodynamique The force exerted by a gaseous fluid upon a body completely immersed in it caused by their relative motion. The components of aerodynamic force are: → lift and → drag. → aerodynamic; → force. |
aerodynamics havâtavânik Fr.: aérodynamique The science that is concerned with the study of the → motion of → air and other gaseous → fluids and with the → forces acting on bodies moving through such fluids. |
aerolite havâsang (#) Fr.: aérolite A stony meteorite consisting of silicate minerals. This alternative name for a stony meteorite, is now largely obsolete. Aerolite, from Gk. aero-, → air, + Gk. lithos "stone". Havâsang from Persian havâ "air"; compare with Mid. Pers./Mod. Pers. vây "weather," from Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow". Cognate with Skt. va-, Gk. aemi "to blow" + sang, → stone. |
aerology javvšenâsi, javvšenâxt Fr.: aérologie A subdivision of meteorology concerned with the total vertical extent of the atmosphere as opposed to the study of the atmosphere near Earth's surface. Aerology from Gk. aero- "air" + Gk. logia "study of," from legein "to speak". Javvšenâsi, from Ar. javv "air, atmosphere" + šenâsi "knowledge, knowing," from šenâxtan "to know," from Av./O.Pers. xšnâ "to learn, come to know, know," compare with Skt. jna "to know," Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know," PIE *gno- "to know." |
aeronautics havânavardi (#) Fr.: aéronautique The science and technology concerned with designing, constructing, and operating machines capable of flying in the atmosphere. From aeronautic, from Fr. aéronautique, from aéro-, from Gk. aer, → air, + nautique "of ships," from L. nauticus, from Gk. nautikos, from naus "ship" (cognate with Mod.Pers. nâv "ship;" Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nāu- "ship"). Havânavardi, from havâ, → air, + navardi, verbal noun of navardidan "to travel, walk, pass by and over." |
aeronomy vâyšenâsi, farâzâjavvšenâxt Fr.: aéronomie The study of the upper atmosphere, especially of regions of ionized gas. From Gk. aer- "weather" + nomos "arranging, regulating," related to nemein "to deal out." Vâyšenâsi from Mid. Pers./Mod. Pers. vây "weather," Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow;" cf. Skt. va-; Gk. aemi "to blow;" Av. vāta- "wind;" Skt. vata-; L. ventus, Mod. Pers. bâd, → wind; PIE *we- "to blow". |
aerosol havâlu Fr.: aérosol A suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. Aerosol from aero "air" + sol(ution). Havâlu from havâ "weather" + lu from → luyé, luyeš, → solution. |
aesthetic zibâyik, zibâ-šenâxti, zibâ Fr.: esthétique Relating to the philosophy of → aesthetics. Adjective from → aesthetics. |
aesthetics zibâyik (#), zibâyi-šenâsi Fr.: esthétique 1) The branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful, the ugly,
the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with a view to establishing
the meaning and validity of critical judgments concerning works of art, and the
principles underlying or justifying such judgments. From Ger. Ästhetisch or Fr. esthétique, both from Gk. aisthetikos "sensitive, perceptive," from aisthanesthai "to perceive, to feel." Zibâyik, from zibâ "beautiful, elegant, adorned," → beauty, + -ik, → -ics. |
affine karvan Fr.: affine Math.: Of or pertaining to the geometry of → affine transformations. See also: → affine combination, → affine geometry, → affine set, → affinity. From Fr., from L. affinis "bordering on; neighboring; related." Karvan, literally "bordering on; possessing border (with); related," from (Bašgard) ker "border, boundary," (Fin Bandar Abbas) karaq "border, edge;" classical Pers. karân, kenâr "boundary, side, edge;" + -van suffix of possession, relation. |
affine combination miyâzeš-e karvan Fr.: combinaison affine A linear combination of vectors in which all the vector coefficients add up to one. → affine; → combination. |
affine geometry hendese-ye karvan Fr.: géométrie affine The study of the properties which are → invariant under → affine transformations. |
affine set hangard-e karvan Fr.: ensemble affine A set → if and only if (iff) for any two points in the → set, the line through them is contained in the set. In other words, for any two points in the set, their → affine combinations are in the set itself. |
affine transformation tarâdis-e karvan Fr.: transformation affine Any → transformation preserving → collinearity. → affine; → transformation. |
affinity karvani Fr.: affinité 1) General: A relationship or resemblance. |
affix vand (#) Fr.: affixe A linguistic element added to a word or root to produce a derived or inflected form. General term for → infix, → prefix, → suffix, and → circumfix. From L. affixus "fastened to," p.p. of affigere "fasten to, attach," from af-, variant of → ad- "to" + figere "fasten." Vand, variant band "tie, band," present stem of Mod.-Mid./Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind. |
afocal akânun, bikânun (#) Fr.: afocal Describing a lens or optical system with a convergent power of zero, whose object and image points stretch to infinity. Thus, → afocal system. Akânun, from a- negation prefix, → a- + kânun, → focus. Bikânun, from bi- negation prefix + kânun, → focus. |
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