An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 67 Search : field
aligned magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناطیسی ِ آختیده   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye âxatidé

Fr.: champ magnétique aligné   

A magnetic field whose lines of force are oriented along a particular direction or by a particular manner (axially, vertically; randomly, properly, etc.)

aligned; → magnetic field.

apparent field
  میدان ِ پدیدار   
meydân-e padidâr

Fr.: champ apparent   

The angular diameter of the circle of light that the eye sees through an eyepiece.

apparent; → field.

azimuthal magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ سوگانی   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye sugâni

Fr.: champ magnétiquue azimutal   

In the → solar dynamo model, a magnetic field that points from east to west or vice-versa.

azimuthal; → magnetic; → field.

classical field theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کلاسیک ِ میدان   
negare-ye klâsik-e meydân

Fr.: théorie classique des champs   

The theory that studies distributions of → energy, → matter, and other physical quantities under circumstances where their discrete nature is unimportant. Classical field theory traditionally includes → Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell's → electromagnetic theory, and Einstein's theory of → general relativity. The main scope of classical field theory is to construct the mathematical description of → dynamical systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. The word "classical" is used in contrast to those field theories that incorporate → quantum mechanics (→ quantum field theory). Classical field theories are usually categorized as → non-relativistic and → relativistic.

classical; → field; → theory.

conservative field
  میدان ِ پایش‌مند   
meydân-e pâyešmand

Fr.: champ conservatif   

A → field of → force in which the → work done in taking a particle from one point to another is independent of the → path taken between them. Examples are → electrostatic field and → gravitational field.

conservative; → field.

crowded field
  میدان ِ چپیرناک   
meydân-e capirnâk

Fr.: champ encombré   

An area on the sky where a large number of objects, commonly stars, are seen gathered together, usually as revealed by imaging.

crowded; → field.

deep field
  میدان ِ ژرف   
meydân-e žarf

Fr.: champ profond   

An area on the sky whose image is obtained with a deep exposure, such as → Hubble Deep Field.

deep; → field.

Draine field
  میدان ِ درین   
meydân-e Draine

Fr.: champ de Draine   

A unit used to express the strength of → far ultraviolet (FUV) average → interstellar radiation field. It is equal to ~ 1.7 → Habing field.

Named after B. T. Draine, 1978, ApJS 36, 595.

Einstein's field equations
  هموگش‌های ِ میدان ِ اینشتین   
hamugešhâ-ye meydân-e Einstein

Fr.: équations de champ d'Einstein   

A system of ten non-linear → partial differential equations in the theory of → general relativity which relate the curvature of → space-time with the distribution of matter-energy. They have the form: Gμν = -κ Tμν, where Gμν is the → Einstein tensor (a function of the → metric tensor), κ is a coupling constant called the → Einstein gravitational constant, and Tμν is the → energy-momentum tensor. The field equations mean that the curvature of space-time is due to the distribution of mass-energy in space. A more general form of the field equations proposed by Einstein is: Gμν + Λgμν = - κTμν, where Λ is the → cosmological constant.

Named after Albert Einstein (1879-1955); → field; → equation.

electric field
  میدان ِ برقی   
meydân-e barqi (#)

Fr.: champ électrique   

The effect produced by the existence of an → electric charge in the volume of space that surrounds it. The direction of the field is taken to be the direction of the force it would exert on a positive test charge. The electric field is radially outward from a positive charge and radially in toward a negative point charge.

electric; → field.

electromagnetic field
  میدان ِ برقامغناتی   
meydân-e barqâmeqnâti

Fr.: champ électromagnétique   

A region of space consisting of coupled electric and magnetic lines of force at each point, generated by time-varying currents and accelerated charges.

electromagnetic; → field.

electrostatic field
  میدان ِ برق‌ایستا   
meydân-e barqistâ (#)

Fr.: champ électrostatique   

A region of space in which a non-moving → electric charge would be subjected to a force of attraction or repulsion as a result of the presence of another stationary electric charge. The electrostatic field is a special case of the → electromagnetic field.

electrostatic; → field.

meydân (#)

Fr.: champ   

1) General: An expanse of anything.
2) Physics: A region or space defined by the presence of a physical force, such as electric, magnetic, or gravitational.
3) Math.: A mathematical entity for which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are well-defined.

M.E., from O.E. feld "plain, open land," probably related to O.E. folde "earth, land," from P.Gmc. *felthuz "flat land" (cf. Ger. Feld), from PIE *pel(e)-tu-,from base *pele- "flat, to sprea;" cf. L. planus "flat, level," → plane.

Meydân "field, field of battle, arena, extensive plain," from Mid.Pers. mêdân "arena, field." This term is loaned into Ar. from Pers. or Mid.Pers.

field curvature
  خمیدگی ِ میدان   
xamidegi-ye meydân (#)

Fr.: courbure de champ   

An aberration in an optical instrument, common in Schmidt telescopes, in which the focus changes from the center to the edge of the field of view. Owing to this aberration, a straight object looks curved in the image.

field; → curvature.

field equation
  هموگش ِ میدان   
hamugeš-e meydân

Fr.: équation de champ   

In a physical theory, an equation that describe how a fundamental force interacts with matter. Einstein's equations of → general relativity are called field equations since they describe the → gravitational field. Similarly, → Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field.

field; → equation.

field galaxy
  کهکشان ِ میدان   
kahkešân-e meydân

Fr.: galaxie de champ   

A galaxy that lies in the direction of a → cluster of galaxies, but is not a member of the cluster. Field galaxies are rare, less than about 5% of all galaxies.

field; → galaxy.

field horizontal branch star
  ستاره‌ی ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی ِ میدانی   
setâre-ye šâxe-ye ofoqi-ye meydâni

Fr.: étoile de la branche horizontal du champ   

A → horizontal branch star with high velocity.

field; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

field lens
  عدسی ِ میدان   
adasi-ye meydân

Fr.: lentille de champ   

A lens placed at or near the focal plane of a telescope to create an image of the primary mirror inside the instrument.

field; → lens.

field O star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Oی ِ میدان   
setâre-ye O-ye meydân

Fr.: étoile O de champ   

An → O-type star which is apparently not associated with a → star cluster. A significant fraction of → massive stars in the → Milky Way and other galaxies are located far from star clusters and → star-forming regions. It is known that some of these stars are → runaways, i.e. possess high → space velocities (determined through the → proper motion and/or → radial velocity measurements), and therefore most likely were formed in embedded clusters and then ejected into the field because of dynamical interactions or → binary-→ supernova explosions. However, there exists a group of field O stars whose runaway status is difficult to prove via direct proper motion measurements or whose low space velocities and/or young ages appear to be incompatible with their large separation from known star clusters. The existence of this group led some authors to believe that these stars can form → in situ. The question of whether or not O stars can form in isolation (→ isolated massive star formation) is of crucial importance for → star formation models (Gvaramadze et al., 2012, MNRAS, 424, 3037).

field; → O star.

field object
  بر‌آخت ِ میدان   
barâxt-e meydân

Fr.: objet de champ   

An astronomical object that is seen in the direction of a group but not physically belonging to the group. → field galaxy.

field; → object.

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