An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 22 Search : physics
applied physics
  فیزیک ِ کاربردی   
fizik-e kârbordi (#)

Fr.: physique appliquée   

A set of topics in physics intended for a particular or practical use. Applied physics programs are usually interfaces between pure physics and technology.

Past participle of → apply; → physics.

astroparticle physics
  فیزیک ِ اخترذره   
fizik-e axtar-šzarre

Fr.: physique des astroparicules   

The area of science which deals with → elementary particle and → high-energy phenomena in → astrophysics and → cosmology.

astro-; → particle; → physics.

astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک   
axtarfizik (#)

Fr.: astrophysique   

The branch of → astronomy that deals with the → physics of → celestial objects and the → Universe in general. It relies on the assumption that the → laws of physics apply everywhere in the Universe and throughout all time. See also → observational astrophysics, → theoretical astrophysics.

Astrophysics, from → astro- "star" + → physics. The first use of the term astrophysics has been attributed to Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882) in 1865. He defined it as a coalescence of physics and chemistry with astronomy (History of Astronomy: An Encyclopedia, ed. John Lankford, Routledge, 1997).

biophysics
  زیست‌فیزیک   
zistfizik (#)

Fr.: biophysique   

The science that deals with biological structures and processes involving the application of physical principles and methods.

Biophysics, from → bio- + → physics.

Zistfizik, from zist-, → bio- + fizikphysics.

classical physics
  فیزیک ِ کلاسیک   
fizik-e kelâsik (#)

Fr.: physique classique   

Physics not taking into account → quantum mechanics or Einstein's → relativity theory. Classical physics includes the branches developed before the beginning of the 20th cantury: Mechanics, Acoustics, Optics, Thermodynamics, and Electricity and Magnetism. Most of classical physics is concerned with matter and energy on the normal scale of observation.

classical; → physics.

deterministic physics
  فیزیک ِ آترم‌باور   
fizik-e âtarmbâvar

Fr.: physique déterministe   

The classical representation of the laws of nature according to which a particular future state (B) will arise from a particular past one (A). In contrast to → quantum physics which deals with the probability for the transition from A to B.

Deterministic, adj. of determinism; → physics.

geophysics
  زمین‌فیزیک   
zaminfizik (#)

Fr.: géophysique   

The branch of physics that deals with the Earth and its environment, including meteorology, oceanography, seismology, and geomagnetism.

geo-; → physics.

high-energy astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ مه‌کاروژ   
axtarfizik-e meh-kâruž

Fr.: astrophysique des hautes énergies   

A branch of astrophysics that deals with objects emitting highly energetic radiation, such as X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, and extreme ultraviolet astronomy, as well as neutrinos and cosmic rays.

high; → energy; → astrophysics.

modern physics
  فیزیک ِ نوین   
fizik-e novin (#)

Fr.: physique moderne   

The physics developed since about 1900, which includes Einstein's → relativity theory and → quantum mechanics, as distinguished from → classical physics. Much of modern physics is concerned with the behavior of matter and energy under extreme conditions or on the very small scale.

modern; → physics.

nuclear physics
  فیزیک ِ هسته‌ای   
fizik-e haste-yi

Fr.: physique nucléaire   

The branch of physics which is concerned with the study of atomic nuclei, subatomic particles, and their exploitation.

nuclear; → physics.

observational astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ نپاهشی   
axtarfizik-e nepâheši

Fr.: astrophysique observationnelle   

That part of astrophysics that is mainly concerned with the collection of observational data, in comparison with theoretical astrophysics

observational; → astrophysics.

particle physics
  فیزیک ِ ذره‌ای   
fizik-e zarreyi (#)

Fr.: physique des particules   

The branch of physics that deals with the smallest known structures of matter and energy in order to understand the fundamental particles and forces of nature.

particle; → physics.

physics
  فیزیک   
fizik (#)

Fr.: physique   

The science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions.

M.E. fisyk(e), phisik(e), from O.Fr. fisique, from L. physica (fem. sing.) "study of nature," from Gk. physike episteme "knowledge of nature," from fem. of physikos "pertaining to nature," from physis "nature," from phyein "to bring forth, produce, make to grow," Gk. phy- "to become;" L. fui "I was," futurus "that is to be, future;" Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist; E. to be; O.Ir. bi'u "I am;" Lith. bu'ti "to be;" Rus. byt' "to be."

Loan from Fr. physique, as above.

planetary physics
  فیزیک ِ سیارگان   
fizik-e sayyâregân (#)

Fr.: physique des planètes   

The study of the structure, composition, as well as physical and chemical properties of the planets of the solar system, including their atmospheres and their immediate cosmic environment.

planetary; → physics.

plasma physics
  فیزیک ِ پلاسما، پلاسمافیزیک   
fizik-e plâsmâ (#), plâsmâ fizik (#)

Fr.: physique des plasmas   

The study of the physical properties of the various forms of plasmas and their processing.

plasma; → physics.

solar physics
  فیزیک ِ خورشیدی   
fizik-e xoršidi

Fr.: physique solaire   

The branch of astrophysics concerned with the study of the physical properties of the Sun based on the most detailed observations which can be obtained for a star.

solar; → physics.

solid state physics
  فیزیک ِ استات ِ دفزه، ~ حالت ِ جامد   
fizik-e estât-e dafzé, ~ hâlat-e jâmed

Fr.: physique de l'état solide   

The branch of condensed matter physics concerned with the study of rigid matter or solids in terms of their constituent particles (electrons and nuclei). The bulk of solid-state physics theory and research is focused on the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of crystalline solids.

solid state; → physics.

standard model of particle physics
  مدل ِ استانده‌ی ِ فیزیک ِ ذره‌ای   
model-e estânde-ye fizik-e zarre-yi

Fr.: modèle standard de la physique des particules   

The theory developed since the 1970s, which is based on the theories and discoveries since the 1930s, and aims at explaining the fundamental structure of matter. According to the standard model, everything in the universe is made from a few basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. The particles occur in two basic types, called quarks and leptons. Three of the four fundamental forces (except gravity) and their carrier particles are included in the Standard Model. The Standard Model has successfully explained almost all experimental results and precisely predicted a wide variety of phenomena. Over time and through many experiments, the Standard Model has become established as a well-tested physics theory.

standard; → model; → particle; → physics.

statistical physics
  فیزیک ِ آماری   
fizik-e âmâri (#)

Fr.: physique statistique   

The branch of physics that applies methods of → probability theory and → statistics to the behavior of large numbers of microscopic particles (such as molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles) in order to explain and predict the overall properties of the system composed of such particles.

statistical; → physics.

stellar astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ ستاره‌ای   
axtarfizik-e setâre-yi

Fr.: astrophysique stellaire   

The field of → astrophysics concerned with the study of the physical characteristics of stars, more specifically their → internal structure, physical processes taking place in their interiors, atmospheres, → stellar winds, → mass loss, interaction with the → interstellar medium, as well as the physical laws governing → star formation. Same as → stellar physics and → stellar astronomy.

stellar; → astrophysics.

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