An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 952

Fr.: arranger, ranger   

1) To set in a rank or row. To put in order.
2) Music: To adapt for other instruments or voices.

From M.E. arayngen, from M.Fr. arangier, from O.Fr. arengier, from a- "to," → ad-, + rangier "set in a row," from rang, → rank.

Rezgidan "to set in a row," from Lori rezg "row," related to râst, → right, Av. rāz- "to direct, draw a line;" probably ultimately from Proto-Ir. *Hrazaka- "row."


Fr.: arrangement   

The act of arranging or being arranged. Result or manner of arranging.

Verbal noun of → arrange.


Fr.: réseau; tableau   

1) A system of telescopes coupled together, using → interferometric techniques, to increase the angular resolution or the sensitivity.
2) A two-dimensional detector comprising a large number of identical, individual detectors that can be used simultaneously, e.g. a → CCD.
3) A series of numbers or symbols arranged in some geometric pattern, as in a matrix.

Array, from M.E. arraien, from Anglo-Norman arraier, from V.L. *arredare.

Ârast "set in order," from ârastan, ârâstan "to set in order," Mid.Pers. ârây-, ârâstan, from â- + Av. râd- "to make ready, prepare;" PIE *ar- "to fit together."

Arrhenius equation
  هموگش ِ آرنیوس   
hamugeš-e Arrhenius

Fr.: équation d'Arrhenius   

An important relationship in physical chemistry that combines the concepts of → activation energy and the → Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law. It is expressed by: k = Ae-Ea/(RT), where k is the chemical → reaction rate, Ea is the activation energy, R is the → gas constant, and T is → temperature.

Named for Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927), Swedish chemist and physicist who suggested the relationship in 1889.

arrival time
  زمان ِ رسش   
zamân-e raseš

Fr.: temps d'arrivée   

The precise time at which the gamma burst photons hit a detector. Measuring the time difference between the arrival time of the photons at different telescopes separated by known distances permits to determine the burst direction.

Arrival, n. from arrive + → -al. Arrive, from O.Fr. ariver "to come to land," from V.L. *arripare "to touch the shore," from L. ad ripam "to the shore," from → ad "to" + ripa "shore;" → time.

Zamân, → time; raseš n. from rasidan "to arrive," Mid.Pers. rasitan, O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- "to move, go or come toward," cf. Skt. ar-, rcchati.

peykân (#)

Fr.: flèche   

A slender, straight, generally pointed missile or weapon made to be shot from a bow and equipped with feathers at the end of the shaft near the → nock, for controlling flight ( → Sagitta.

M.E. arewe, arwe, O.E. earh, possibly borrowed from O.N. ör; ultimately from PIE *arku- "bow and/or arrow," → arc.

Peykân "arrow, javelin" (cognate with afkan-, afkandan "to throw, cast away," parâkan-, parâkandan "to scatter, to disperse"), ultimately from Proto-Iranian *paiti-kan- "to throw against," from *paiti- "against, opposite, back" (cf. Mod.Pers. pâd- "against, contrary to;" Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "against, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + *kan- "to throw."

ârsenik (#)

Fr.: arsenic   

A silver-gray black metallic → chemical element which is very brittle; symbol As. → Atomic number 33; → atomic weight 74.9216; → boiling point 613.0 °C (sublimation); → valence -3, 0, +3, or +5. The uncombined element is not considered poisonous, but many of its compounds are extremely so, and are used in medicine and for destroying pests. Its longest-lived radioactive → isotope, 73As, has a → half-life of 80.3 days.

M.E. arsenik, from O.Fr. arsenic, from L. arsenicum, from Gk. arsenikon "arsenic," adapted from Syriac (al) zarniqa "arsenic," from Mid.Pers. zarnik "arsenic," literally "gold-colored," probably because of the lemon-yellow color of arsenic trisulphide (Mod.Pers. zarnix, zarni "arsenic"), from zarr, zar "gold" (+ -ik-ic); Av. zaranya-, zarənu- "gold;" O.Pers. daraniya- "gold;" cf. Skt. hiranya- "gold;" also Av. zaray-, zairi- "yellow, green;" Mod.Pers. zard "yellow;" Skt. hari- "yellow, green;" Gk. khloe literally "young green shoot;" L. helvus "yellowish, bay;" Rus. zeltyj "yellow;" P.Gmc. *gelwaz; Du. geel; Ger. gelb; E. yellow.

Ârsenik, loan from Fr., as above.

honar (#)

Fr.: art   

The process or product of human activity which is the expression of creativity and/or imagination that appeals to the senses or emotions.

From O.Fr. art, from L. artem, (nominative ars) "art, skill, craft;" from PIE base *ar- "to fit, join;" cf. Mod.Pers. arm "arm, from the elbow to the shoulder;" Av. arma-, arəmo- "arm;" Skt. irma- "arm;" Gk. arthron "a joint;" L. armus "shoulder."

Honar, from Mid.Pers. hunar "skill, ability, virtue, manliness;" O.Pers. hūnarā- "abilities, skills;" Av. hunara- "ability, skill"; cf. Skt. sūnára- "powerful, joyous, beautiful;" Proto-Iranian *Hnar- "to be able, strong."

sorxrag (#)

Fr.: artère   

A blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body (

M.E. arterie, O.Fr. artaire, from L. arteria, from Gk. arteria "windpipe," also "an artery," as distinct from a vein; related to aeirein "to raise."

Sorxrag, literally "red vessel," from sorx, → red, + rag, → vessel.


Fr.: article   

1) A nonfictional prose composition usually forming an independent part of a publication in a magazine.
2) A written document devoted to a scientific research and appearing in specialized journal.

Article, from O.Fr. article, from L. articulus, diminutive of artus "a joint".

Vetâr, from Kurd. witâr "article, speech," from witten "to speak, say," from wit-; cf. Pers. vât "letter, word," vâžé "word;" Av. vac- "to speak, say;" Proto-Iranian *uac- "to say, speak;" → letter.


Fr.: objet fabriqué, artefact   

1) An object made by a human being, typically one of cultural or historical interest.
2) Something observed in a scientific investigation or experiment that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the preparative or investigative procedure (

From It. artefatto, from L. arte "by skill" (ablative of ars "→ art") + factum "thing made," from facere "to make, do," → -fy.

Dasâc "hand made," from das variant of dast, → hand, + sâc, variant of sâz-, sâxtan, → agree.

sâxtegi (#)

Fr.: artificiel   

Not occurring naturally; produced by man.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. artificialis "belonging to art," from artificium "craftsmanship."

Sâxtegi "artificial," from sâxtan "to build, to make," → structure.

artificial horizon
  افق ِ ساختگی   
ofoq-e sâxtegi

Fr.: horizon artificiel   

A shallow flat vessel filled with → mercury or some other viscous → liquid used in special → sextant for measuring altitudes of celestial bodies at sea in the absence of a → visible horizon.

artificial; → horizon.

artificial language
  زبان ِ ساختگی   
zabân-e sâxtegi

Fr.: langue artificielle   

An artificially created language system for international communication or for a specific intellectual or scientific purpose. Examples include Esperanto, computer programing languages, → symbolic logic, and → tensor analysis.

artificial; → language.

artificial light
  نور ِ ساختگی   
nur-e sâxtegi

Fr.: lumière artificielle   

Any light other than that which proceeds from the heavenly bodies.

artificial; → light.

artificial satellite
mâhvâré (#)

Fr.: satellite artificiel   

A man-made equipment that orbits around Earth or a solar system body.

artificial; → satellite.

artificial star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ساختگی   
setâre-ye sâxtegi

Fr.: étoile artificielle   

In → adaptive optics, a point source created on the sky by means of a laser beam in order to correct for the → atmospheric turbulence. A laser tuned to the wavelength of 589 nm will excite sodium atoms at an altitude of ~ 100 km in the Earth's atmosphere, producing an artificial "star."

artificial; → star.

  پنبه‌ی ِ کوهی، ~ نسوز   
panbe-ye kuhi (#), ~ nasuz (#)

Fr.: aminate   

A family of fibrous mineral silicates that are incombustible, resistant to chemicals, and do not conduct electricity. In the past asbestos has been widely used for a range of fireproof materials and in the building industry. Asbestos causes very serious health problems if the fibers are inhaled (bronchial cancer, laryngeal cancer, and mesothelioma).

M.E. albeston, abestus, from O.Fr. abeste, abestos, from L. asbestos "quicklime," from Gk. asbestos, literally "inextinguishable," from → a- "not" + sbestos, verbal adjective from sbennynai "to quench."

Panbe-ye kuhi, literally "mountain cotton," from panbé, → cotton, + kuhi "pertaining to mountains," from kuh, → mountain.
Panbe-ye nasuz, literally "non-inflammable cotton," from panbé + nasuz "non-inflammable," from na- "not," → a- + suz-, suxtan, → burn.

farâzidan (#)

Fr.: monter, s'élever   

1) To move, climb, or go upward; mount; rise.
2) To rise to a higher point, rank, or degree; proceed from an inferior to a superior degree or level (

M.E. ascenden, from L. ascendere "to climb up, mount," from → ad- "to" + scandere "to climb," → scan.

Farâzidan, from farâz "above, over, aloft."


Fr.: ascendant   

1a) A position or condition of dominance, superiority or control.
1b) An ancestor; forebear.
2a) Ascending; rising.
2b) superior; predominant.


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