An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ab ab- abo abs abs acc acc aco act ad add adj aeo afo agr Alf alg Alk Aln Alp alt amb ana anc ang ani ann Ant ant Ant apl apo app Apu arc arg aro asc ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi > >>

Number of Results: 954


Verbal form of → astration.



Fr.: astration   

The cyclic process in which interstellar matter is incorporated into newly formed stars, where it undergoes nuclear processing, is thus enriched with heavier elements, and then returns into the interstellar medium through supernova explosion or stellar winds to be used in the formation of a newer generation of stars.

Astration, from astrate, from astr-, → astro-, + noun-forming suffix -ation.

Setâreš, from setâridan (from setâré "star" + verb-making suffix -idan) + noun-builder -eš.

axtar- (#)

Fr.: astro-   

A combining form with the meaning "pertaining to stars or celestial bodies" used in the formation of compound words. Variants aster-, and astr- before a vowel. → star.

Gk. astron "star," akin to L. stella (Fr. étoile, from O.Fr. esteile, from V.L. *stela), Skt. str-, tara-, Av. star-, Mid.Pers. star, stârag, Mod.Pers. setâré, axtar, see below; cf. O.E. steorra, E. star, Du. ster, O.H.G. sterro, Ger. Stern, PIE *ster- "star."

Mod.Pers. axtar, → star, from Mid.Pers. axtar. The variants star-, estâr, estâré, setâré are obvious. Note also the following dialectal forms: (Lori, Laki) âsâra, (Tabari) essâra, (Laki) hasâra, (Shughni) xiterj, xtarag. The form axtar is less straightforward, leading some philologists to suggest different origins for setâré and axtar. According to W. Eilers (Iranica), axtar is a back-fomation from Mid.Pers. apâxtar "planet; north" produced by artificial dropping of the first component. Apart from phonological difficulties inherent in this suggestion, one must also explain how axtar meaning "planet" became a general designation for star, as for example in Mid.Pers. axtarmâr "astronomer," despite the relatively infinitesimal number of planets known in ancient times. W. Eilers' suggestion is pure theoretical construction; no factual evidence support it. On the other hand, in Pahlavi texts, e.g. Bundahishn, axtar is extensively used for "star, planet, and the signs of zodiac."

We suggest that both words star and axtar are etymologically related. This idea is based on the fact that "s" and "x" phonemes interchange in Persian and other IE languages. For example, the PIE *swesor "sister" has evolved into Av. xvanhar-, Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers. xâhar (Skt. svasar-, L. soror, Fr. soeur, Gk. eor "daughter, cousin, relative," Arm. k'oyr, O.H.G. swester, Ger. Schwester, Du. zuster, E. sister). Similarly, *saewel- "sun" has become Av. hvar- "sun," Mid.Pers. xavr, Mod.Pers. xor, while keeping its Av. h in Mod.Pers. hur "sun" (cf. Skt. svar-, surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, Goth. sauil, Lith. saule). Finally, *su- "hog, pig, swine" also has changed its "s" into both "h" and "x" in Av. and Mod.Pers. hu- and xuk respectively (Skt. sukara- "boar, hog, pig," Gk. hys, L. sus, Welsh hucc, Ger. Schwein, E. swine).

  اخترباستان‌شناسی، باستان‌اخترشناسی   
axtarbâstânšenâsi(#) , bâstânaxtaršenâsi (#)

Fr.: astroarchéologie   

Same as → archaeoastronomy, megalithic astronomy.

axtarzistšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrobiologie   

The study of life throughout the Universe, also known as exobiology.

Astrobiology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + bio "life" + -logy "science, study."

Axtarzistšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → astro- + zistšenâsi, → biology.


Fr.: astroblème   

A geological structure on the Earth's surface from an ancient meteorite impact.

Astrobleme, from → astro- + Gk. blema "scar, wound, missile," from ballein "to throw;" PIE *gwele- "to throw".

Axtarxasts, from axtar "star," → astro- + xast "wounded; scratched," from xastan "to wound, wound by scratching," Mid.Pers. xst, xs "to injure," Av. vixad- "to crush," Proto-Iranian *xad- "to wound, hurt," Skt. khad- "to hurt."

axtaršimi (#)

Fr.: astrochimie   

The study of the chemical interactions between the gas and dust of the interstellar medium.

Astrochemistry, from → astro- "star" + → chemistry.

Axtaršimi, from axtar, → astro-, + šimi, → chemistry.


Fr.: astrodynamique   

The science dealing with the motion of satellites, rockets, and spacecrafts. It uses the principles of celestial mechanics.

Astrodynamics, from → astro- "star" + → dynamics.

Axtartavânik, from axtar, → astro-, + tavânik, → dynamics.

axtarzaminšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrogéologie   

A science concerned with the geology of solid bodies in the Solar system, such as planets, satellites, asteroids, and meteorites.

Astrogeology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + → geology.

Axtarzaminšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → + zaminšenâsi, → geology.

axtarnegâr (#)

Fr.: astrographe   

A photographic instrument with great light gathering power which is used to photograph a large field in a single exposure.

Astrograph, from → astro- + → graph.

Axtarnegâr, from axtar, → astro-, + -negâr, → -graph.

ostorlâb (#)

Fr.: astrolabe   

An ancient instrument for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. It had many uses, including telling time during the day or night, finding the time of sunrise and sunset and, thus, the length of the day, and locating celestial objects in the sky. It was widely used until replaced by the → sextant. The → planispheric astrolabe, which is the most common type of the instrument, is typically made up of a graduated disk hanging vertically, which is rotated so that it can be directed to the star chosen. The local time can thus be read from the face of the astrolabe, and different tables, at various latitudes, can be used. More specifically, a planispheric astrolabe is made up of the following main components: → mater, → tympanum, → rete, → alidade, → throne, → limb, → pin, → horse, → front, and → back. The astrolabe was invented by Greeks, and some historians have attributed it to Hipparchus (c190-c120 BC). Modern, sophisticated versions (such as → prismatic astrolabe and → Danjon astrolabe), are used for high precision measurements of star positions. See also → particular astrolabe, → spherical astrolabe, and → universal astrolabe.

M.E., from O.Fr. astrelabe, from M.L. astrolabium, from Gk. astrolabos (organon) "star taking (instrument)," from astron "star," → astro- + lambanein "to take."

Ostorlâb, from Ar. usturlab, from Gk. astrolabos, as above.

axtargu (#)

Fr.: astrologue   

One who practices → astrology; one who professes to foretell events by the aspects and situation of the stars.

Agent noun from → astrology.

Axtargu, a classical term used by e.g. Jalâleddin Rumi (Mowlavi), 13th century poet, → astrology.

axtarguyi (#)

Fr.: astrologie   

A → pseudoscience based on the belief that the apparent positions and → aspects of a small number of celestial bodies influence the course of human life and terrestrial events. Although the Sun and Moon have a gravitational influence on Earth, there is no known force that can cause celestial bodies to affect human affairs in the way claimed by → astrologers. Generally speaking, astrology is baseless and incoherent. In the astrological belief the influence of celestial bodies does not depend upon their distance from Earth, but on their positions and apparent angular separations. Outer planets can have a similar degree of influence as the inner planets. As a consequence, the billions of planets in our Galaxy and in billions of other galaxies should also influence us, and logically the effect of those planets must overwhelm any influence of the planets we see. Nevertheless astrologers do not care, and this fact makes astrological deductions absurd even in their scheme. Historically, the planets → Uranus, → Neptune, and → Pluto were not used in astrological predictions. They were added from the 18th century onward, after their discovery. Now that Pluto is disqualified as a planet, will astrologers remove it from their theories? If the answer is negative, they must logically include the numerous other similar → dwarf planets (such as → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna) residing in the → Kuiper belt. In brief, astrology is a superstition chiefly based on ignorance and man's need for mental contentment.

astro-; → -logy.

Axtarguyi, literally "star-telling," from axtar "star," → astro- + guyi verbal noun from goftan "to tell, speak, talk;" Mid.Pers. guftan "to say, tell, utter;" O.Pers. gaub- "to say."

astrometric binary
  درین ِ اخترسنجیک   
dorin-e axtarsanjik

Fr.: binaire astrométrique   

A binary star in which the presence of an unresolved companion is revealed by small oscillations in the movement of the visible component caused by the gravitational influence of the unseen component.

astrometry; → binary.


Fr.: astrométrie   

The precise measurement of the positions and motions of → astronomical objects.

Astrometry, from → astro- "star" + → -metry "measuring."

Axtarsanji, from axtar, → astro-, + -sanji "measuring."

  فضانورد، کیهان‌نورد   
fazânavard (#), keyhânnavard (#)

Fr.: astronaute, cosmonaute   

A person trained to pilot, navigate, or otherwise participate as a crew member of a spacecraft.

Astronaut, from Gk. → astro- "star" + nautes "sailor," from naus "ship" (cognate with Mod.Pers. nâv "ship;" Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nāu- "ship").

Fazânavard, from Ar. fazâ "space" + navard agent noun from navardidan "to travel, walk, pass by and over."
Keyhânnavard, from keyhân "cosmos" + navard.

  فضانوردی، کیهان‌نوردی   
fazânavardi (#), keyhânnavardi (#)

Fr.: astronautique   

The science and technology of space flight, including the building and operation of space vehicles.


axtaršenâs (#)

Fr.: astronome   

One who specializes in astronomy. → professional astronomer, → amateur astronomer.

Astronomer, from → astronomy + → -er.

Axtaršenâs has a long history in Persian; it is abundantly used by Ferdowsi (A.D. 950-1020) in his great work Šâhnâmé (Shahnameh); from axtar "star" → astro- + šenâs contraction of šenâsandé "expert, knowlegeable, skilled," from šenâxtan "to know, to recognize." → astronomy.

  اخترشناختی، اخترشناسیک، اختری   
axtaršenâxti, axtaršenâsik, axtari (#)

Fr.: astronomique   

Of or relating to → astronomy.
In non astronomical contexts, of enormous magnitude; immense.

Astronomical, from L. astronomic(us), → astronomy + → -ic, + → -al adj. suffix.

Axtaršenâxti, from axtaršenâxt, variant of axtaršenâsi, → astronomy + -i adj. suffix.
Axtaršenâsik, from axtaršenâsi, → astronomy + re-introduced Mod.Pers. suffix -ik, → -ics.

astronomical clock
  ساعت ِ اخترشناسیک   
sâ'at-e axtaršenâsik

Fr.: horloge astronomique   

A precise pendulum clock with separate dials for seconds, minutes, and hours. It was originally used by astronomers to calculate astronomical time.

astronomical; → clock.

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