An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1965 Search : ion
blackbody radiation
  تابش ِ سیه‌جسم   
tâbeš-e siyah-jesm (#)

Fr.: rayonnement de corps noir   

The radiation emitted by a blackbody at a given → temperature. The → distribution of radiation with → wavelength is given by → Planck's blackbody formula or → Planck's radiation law.

blackbody; → radiation.

blue region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ آبی   
nâhiye-ye âbi

Fr.: région bleue   

The portion of the → visible spectrum lying between 455 and 492 nm.

blue; → region.

Boeshaar-Keenan classification
  رده‌بندی ِ بوسهار-کینان   
radebandi-ye Boeshaar-Keenan

Fr.: classification de Boeshaar-Keenan   

A system for the classification of → S-type stars. The system involves the designations of a C/O index and a temperature type. Moreover, when possible, it uses intensity estimates for → ZrO bands, the → TiO bands, the → Na I D-lines, the YO bands, and the Li I 6708 line.

Philip C. Keenan & Patricia C. Boeshaar, 1980, ApJS, 43, 379; → classification.

bolometric correction
  ارشایش ِ تفسنجی، ~ تفسنجیک   
aršâyeš-e tafsanji, ~ tafsanjik

Fr.: correction bolométrique   

The difference between the → visual magnitude and → bolometric magnitude.

bolometric; → correction.

Boltzmann's equation
  هموگش ِ بولتسمن   
hamugeš-e Boltzmann

Fr.: équation de Boltzmann   

1) An equation that expresses the relative number (per unit volume) of → excited atoms in different states as a function of the temperature for a gas in → thermal equilibrium: Nu/Nl = (gu/gl) exp (-ΔE/kTex), where Nu and Nl are the upper level and lower level populations respectively, gu and gl the → statistical weights, ΔE = hν the energy difference between the states, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and h  → Planck's constant.

Boltzmann's constant; → equation.

Boltzmann's relation
  باز‌آنش ِ بولتسمن   
bâzâneš-e Boltzmann

Fr.: relation de Boltzmann   

A relation between the → entropy of a given → state of a → thermodynamic system and the → probability of the state: S = k . ln Ω where S is the entropy of the system, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and Ω the thermodynamic probability of the state. Boltzmann's relation connects → statistical mechanics and → thermodynamics. Ω is the number of possible → microstates of the system, and it represents the → randomness of the system. The relation also describes the statistical meaning of the → second law of thermodynamics. This expression has been carved above Boltzmann's name on his tombstone in Zentralfreihof in Vienna. Same as → Boltzmann's entropy formula.

Boltzmann's constant; → relation.

Bondi-Hoyle accretion
  فربال ِ بوندی-هویل   
farbâl-e Bondi-Hoyle

Fr.: accrétion de Bondi-Hoyle   

The → accretion of mass by a star (assumed as point particle) moving at a steady speed through an infinite, uniform gas cloud. It is directly proportional to the star mass (M) and the medium density (ρ) and inversely proportional to the relative star/gas velocity (v). In its classical expression: 4πρ(G M)2 / v3, where G is the → gravitational constant. See Bondi & Hoyle (1944, MNRAS 104, 273) and Bondi (1952, MNRAS 112, 195). For a recent treatment of accretion in a turbulent medium see Krumholtz et al. 2006 (ApJ 638, 369).

Named after Hermann Bondi (1919-2005), an Anglo-Austrian mathematician and cosmologist and Fred Hoyle (1915-2001), British mathematician and astronomer best known as the foremost proponent and defender of the steady-state theory of the universe; → accretion.

Bondi-Hoyle accretion radius
  شعاع ِ فربال ِ بوندی-هویل   
šo'â'-e farbâl-e Bondi-Hoyle

Fr.: rayon de l'accrétion de Bondi-Hoyle   

In the → Bondi-Hoyle accretion process, the radius where the gravitational energy owing to star is larger than the kinetic energy and, therefore, at which material is bound to star. The Bondi-Hoyle accretion radius is given by RBH = 2 GM / (v2 + cs2) where G is the gravitational constant, M is the stellar mass, v the gas/star relative velocity, and cs is the sound speed.

Bondi-Hoyle accretion; → radius.

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)
  چگالش ِ بوز-اینشتین   
cagâleš-e Bose-Einstein

Fr.: condensation de Bose-Einstein   

A → quantum phase transition during which the → bosons constituting a sufficiently cooled boson gas are all clustered in the → ground energy state. The phase transition results in a → Bose-Einstein condensate. This phenomenon occurs when the temperature becomes smaller than a critical value given by: Tc = (2πħ2 / km)(n / 2.612)2/3, where m is mass of each boson, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and n is the particle number density. When T  ≤  Tc, the → de Broglie wavelength of bosons becomes comparable to the distance between bosons.

boson; → Einstein; → condensation.

Bose-Einstein distribution
  واباژش ِ بوز-اینشتین   
vâbâžeš-e Bose-Einstein

Fr.: distribution de Bose-Einstein   

For a → population of independent → bosons, a function that specifies the number of particles in each of the allowed → energy states.

boson; → Einstein; → distribution.

bottom-up structure formation
  دیسش ِ ساختار از پایین به بالا   
diseš-e sâxtâr az pâyin bé bâlâ

Fr.: formation des structures du bas vers le haut   

A → structure formation scenario in which small galaxies form first, and larger structures are then formed in due course. Contrary to → top-down structure formation.

bottom; → up; → structure; → formation; → galaxy.

bound-bound transition
  گذرش ِ بندیده-بندیده   
gozareš-e bandidé-bandidé

Fr.: transition liée-liée   

A transition between two energy levels of an electron bound to a nucleus. The electron remains tied to the nucleus before and after the transition. → bound-free transition; → free-free emission.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → transition.

bound-free transition
  گذرش ِ بندیده-آزاد   
gozareš-e bandidé-âzâd

Fr.: transition liée-libre   

A transition in which a bound electron is liberated. → free-bound emission; → free-free emission.

Bound, p.p. of → bind; → free.

boundary conditions
  بوتارها‌ی ِ کران، ~ کرانی   
butârhâ-ye karân, ~ karâni

Fr.: conditions à la limite   

1) Math: Restriction on the limits of applicability of an equation. In a differential equation, conditions that allow to fix the constant of integration and reach a unique solution. The number of boundary conditions necessary to determine a solution matches the order of the equation.
2) Physics: Conditions needed to determine the evolution of a system, given the physical laws.

boundary; → condition.

bounded function
  کریای ِ کرانمند، ~ کراندار   
karyâ-ye karânmand, ~ karândâr

Fr.: fonction bornée   

The function y = f(x) in a given range of the argument x if there exists a positive number M such that for all values of x in the range under consideration the inequality | f(x) | ≤ M will be fulfilled. → unbounded function.

bounded; → function.

Boussinesq approximation
  نزدینش ِ بوسینسک   
nazdineš-e Boussinesq

Fr.: approximation de Boussinesq   

A simplification in the equations of → hydrodynamics that treats the density as constant except in the → buoyancy term. This approximation is motivated by the fact that when pressure and temperature differences in a flow are small, then it follows from the thermodynamic → equation of state that a change in the density is also small.

Named after Joseph Valentin Boussinesq (1842-1929), a French physicist who made significant contributions to the theory of hydrodynamics, vibration, light, and heat; → approximation.


Fr.: bréchification   

The formation of → breccia.

Verbal noun of → brecciate.

brightness distribution
  واباژش ِ درخشندگی   
vâbâžeš-e deraxšandegi

Fr.: distribution de brillance   

A statistical distribution of the brightness of an astronomical extended object.

brightness; → distribution.

Vâbâžeš, → distribution; deraxšandegi, → brightness.

Brillouin function
  کریای ِ بری‌یویءن   
karyâ-ye Brillouin

Fr.: fonction de Brillouin   

A mathematical function appearing in the → magnetization equation of a → paramagnetic substance.

Brillouin zone; → zone.


Fr.: BRITE-Constellation   

An international collaboration between Austria, Canada, and Poland, currently comprising five nano-satellites to investigate stellar structure and evolution of the brightest stars in the sky and their interaction with the local environment. BRITE is also used to study micropulsation, wind phenomena, and other forms of stellar variability. These nano-satellites aim to monitor stars brighter than V ~ 5 mag using two color pass-bands, over various observing campaigns. Each nano-satellite hosts a 3 cm telescope, providing a wide field of view (24° x 20°) to simultaneously observe up to a few dozen stars (Weiss et al. 2014).

BRITE, short for → BRIght Target Explorer; → bright; → target; → explorer.

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