An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1965 Search : ion
convection zone
  زنار ِ همبز   
zonâr-e hambaz

Fr.: zone de convection   

Same as → convective zone.


Fr.: conversion   

The act or process of converting; state of being converted. → convert.

Verbal noun of → convert.

Hâgard, from hâ- prefix denoting "reversal; to," sometimes creating nuance [Dehxodâ], + gard present stem of gardidan, gaštan "to change; to turn;" Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend."

conversion factor
  کروند ِ هاگرد   
karvand-e hâgard

Fr.: facteur de conversion   

1) A numerical factor that, by multiplication or division, translates one unit or value into another.
2) In → molecular cloud studies, a factor used to convert the → carbon monoxide (CO) line intensity to → molecular hydrogen (H2) → column density; usually denoted XCO = I(CO) / N(H2). This useful factor relates the observed CO intensity to the cloud mass. A general method to derive XCO is to compare the → virial mass and the 12CO (J = 1-0) luminosity of a cloud. The basic assumptions are that the CO and H2 clouds are co-extensive, and molecular clouds obey the → virial theorem. However, if the molecular cloud is subject to ultraviolet radiation, selective → photodissociation may take place, which will change the situation. Moreover, molecular clouds may not be in → virial equilibrium. To be in virial equilibrium molecular clouds must have enough mass, greater than about 105 solar masses. The way → metallicity affects XCO is a matter of debate, and there is no clear correlation between XCO and metallicity. Although lower metallicity brings about higher ultraviolet fields than in the solar vicinity, other factors appear to be as important as metallicity for the determination of XCO. In the case of the → Magellanic Clouds, XCO(SMC) = 14 ± 3 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1, which is larger than XCO (LMC) = 7 ± 2 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1. An independent method to derive XCO is to make use of the gamma ray emission from a cloud. The flow of → cosmic ray protons interacts with interstellar low-energy hydrogen nuclei in clouds creating neutral → pions. These pions quickly decay into two gamma rays. It is therefore possible to estimate the number of hydrogen nuclei and hence the cloud mass from the gamma ray counts. Such a gamma-ray based conversion factor is estimated to be 2.0 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 for Galactic clouds, in good agreement with the result obtained from the virial method. However, the gamma ray flux is not well known in general, so this method is uncertain as well. See, e.g., Fukui & Kawamura, 2010 (ARAA 48, 547).

conversion; → factor.

  هم-وچ، هموچ   

Fr.: convocation   

The act of convoking. The state of being convoked.

Verbal noun of → convoke.


Fr.: convolution   

1) A mathematical combination of two functions which involves multiplying the value of one function at a given point with the value of another function, the weighting function, for a displacement from that point and then integrating over all such displacements. The process is repeated for every point of the function. Convolution expresses how the shape of a function is altered by the other. In mathematical terms, the convolution of two functions f(x) and g(x) is defined by: f*g = ∫f(u)g(x - u) du, integral from -∞ to +∞.
2) Astro.: Convolution describes how an instrument, through its transfer function, affects an input signal. → deconvolution.

Verbal noun of → convolve.

convolution theorem
  فربین ِ هماگیش   
farbin-e hamâgiš

Fr.: théorème de convolution   

A theorem stating that the → Fourier transform of the convolution of f(x) and g(x) is equal to the product of the Fourier transform of f(x) and g(x): F{f*g} = F{f}.F{g}.

convolution; → theorem.


Fr.: coordination   

The act or state of coordinating or of being coordinated.

Verbal noun of → coordinate.

coordination compound
  همنات ِ هم‌آرایش   
hamnât-e hamârâyeš

Fr.: composé de coordination   

A chemical compound in which a group of atoms or ions are attached by a coordination bond to a usually metallic central atom or ion.

coordination; → compound.

coordination lattice
  جاره‌ی ِ هم‌آرایش   
jâre-ye hamârâyeš

Fr.: réseau de coordination   

Crystallography: The crystal structure of a → coordination compound.

coordination; → lattice.

coordination number
  شمار ِ هم‌آرایش   
šomêr-e hamârâyeš

Fr.: nombre de coordination   

1) Crystallography: The number of nearest neighbors of an atom or ion in a → crystal lattice. A large coordination number indicates that the structure is more closely packed.
2) Chemistry: The number of atoms, ions, or molecules surrounding a central atom or ion in a complex.

coordination; → number.

Copenhagen Interpretation
  آزند ِ کوپنهاگ   
âzand-e Kopenhâg

Fr.: interprétation de Copenhague   

A general heading which covers a wide variety of complex views on → quantum theory. As the first and the founding interpretation of the → quantum mechanics, it was developed in the late 1920's mainly by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, but also Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and other physicists who made important contributions to the overall understanding of this field. Bohr expressed himself on the subject at various meetings and later published several articles and comments, but he never wrote a systematic and complete version of his views. There is not a unique Copenhagen Interpretation but various more or less complete versions, the common denominator of which is mainly the work of Bohr. Among those opposed to the Copenhagen Interpretation have been Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Louis de Broglie, Max Planck, David Bohm, Alfred Landé, Karl Popper, and Bertrand Russell. The Copenhagen Interpretation recognizes that the deterministic picture of the universe that works so well at the macroscopic level does not work for the world at the quantum level. The universe at the quantum level is predictable only in a statistical sense. This implies that we can never really know the nature of quantum phenomena. The four cornerstones of the Copenhagen Interpretation are: → wave-particle duality, the probability → wave function, the → uncertainty principle, and the significance of the → observer. The observer is of the utmost importance because he causes the reality to unfold in the way it does. The key feature of the Copenhagen Interpretation is a concept known as the → collapse of the wave function, for which there is no known physical explanation; see also → Schrodinger's cat.

Copenhagen, from Dan. København "merchant's port," from køber "merchant" ("buyer") + havn "port," from the fact that the originator and chief interpreter of this school was Niels Bohr whose headquarters was in Copenhagen; → interpretation.

core mass function (CMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ مغزه   
karyâ-ye jerm-e maqzé

Fr.: fonction de masse des cœurs   

The mass distribution of → pre-stellar cores in → star-forming regions. The CMF is usually represented by dN/dM = Mα, where dM is the mass interval, dN the number of cores in that interval, and α takes different values in different mass ranges. In the case of → low-mass stars, it is found that the CMF resembles the → Salpeter function, although deriving the masses and radii of pre-stellar cores is not straightforward. The observational similarity between the CMF and the → initial mass function (IMF) was first put forth by Motte et al. (1988, A&A, 336, 150), and since then many other samples of dense cores have been presented in this context. For example, Nutter & Ward-Thompson (2007, MNRAS 374, 1413), using SCUBA archive data of the Orion star-forming regions, showed that the CMF can be fitted to a three-part → power law consistent with the form of the stellar IMF. Recent results, obtained using observations by the → Herschel Satellite, confirm the similarity between the CMF and IMF with better statistics (Könyves et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L106; André et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L102). Moreover, these works show that the CMF has a → lognormal distribution (i.e. dN/dlog M follows a → Gaussian form against log M), as is the case for the IMF at low masses (below about 1 solar mass).

core; → mass; → function.

Coriolis acceleration
  شتاب ِ کوریولیس   
šetâb-e Coriolis (#)

Fr.: accélération de Coriolis   

The apparent acceleration corresponding to the → Coriolis force. It is the acceleration which, when added to the acceleration of an object relative to a rotating → reference frame and to its → centrifugal acceleration, gives the acceleration of the object relative to a fixed reference frame. Coriolis acceleration equals 2ω x v, where ω is the → angular velocity of the rotating reference frame and v is the radial velocity of a particle relative to the center of the rotating reference frame.

Coriolis effect; → force.

coronal condensation
  چگالش ِ تاجی   
cagâleš-e tâji

Fr.: condensation coronale   

A part of the → solar corona where the gas density and the temperature are higher than in its vicinity. The coronal condensations are visible on the solar limb, above → sunspot groups. Images in X-rays and those supplied by → coronagraphs in white light reveal that such condensations consist of structures in the form of nodes, underlining the corona magnetic field (M.S.: SDE).

coronal; → condensation.

coronal mass ejection (CME)
  اشانش ِ جرم از هورتاج   
ešâneš-e jerm az hurtâj

Fr.: éjection de masse coronale   

A huge eruption of material from regions of the solar corona in which the magnetic field is closed, but which suffer an extremely energetic disruption. Over the course of several hours up to 10,000 billion kg of this material is ejected into → interplanetary space with a a speed of as high as 3000 km/s. CMEs are most spectacularly observed by a white light coronagraph located outside Earth's atmosphere. Such observations from Skylab in the early 1970's were the first to reveal this phenomenon. CME's disrupt the flow of the → solar wind and can produce intense electromagnetic disturbances that can severely damage satellites and disrupt power grids on Earth. When these ejections reach the Earth, they give rise to → geomagnetic storms. The frequency varies with the → solar cycle; during solar minimum they come at a rate of about one per week, and during maximum there is an average of about two or three per day. See also → interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME).

coronal; → mass; → ejection.

corotating interaction region (CIR)
  ناحیه‌ی ِ اندرژیرش ِ هم‌چرخنده   
nâhiye-ye andaržireš-e hamcarxandé

Fr.: région d'interaction en corotation   

A spiral-shaped density enhancement formed around a star when fast stellar winds collide with slower material. This large-scale wind structure can extend from the stellar surface to possibly several tens of stellar radii. The CIRs can be produced by intensity irregularities at the stellar surface, such as dark and bright spots, magnetic loops and fields, or non-radial pulsations. The surface intensity variations alter the radiative wind acceleration locally, which creates streams of faster and slower wind material. CIRs are responsible for the → discrete absorption components seen in some ultraviolet → resonance lines of → hot stars (S. R. Cranmer & S. P. Owocki, 1996, ApJ 462, 469).

corotate; → interaction; → region.


Fr.: corotation   

The act of corotating.

Verbal noun of → corotate.

corotation radius
  شعاع ِ هم‌چرخش   
šoâ'-e ham-carxeš

Fr.: rayon de corotation   

1) In the → X-wind model of → accretion, the distance from the star where the → centrifugal force on a particle corotating with the star balances the → gravitational attraction; in other words, where the → accretion disk rotates at the same → angular velocity as the star.
2) In a → spiral galaxy, the place where the spiral → pattern speed has the same velocity as the → rotation curve of the → galactic disk. In the frame rotating with the wave, particles inside this radius will appear to revolve in the direction of the frame rotation (prograde) while outside this corotation radius, they will be retrograde.

corotation; → radius.

corotation resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ هم‌چرخش   
bâzâvâyi-ye ham-carxeš

Fr.: résonance de corotation   

That condition of a → galactic disk at an orbital radius in which the → angular velocity of the disk equals the → pattern speed. It is significant that the spiral wave pattern rotates as a rigid body (ΩP = const), whereas the galactic disk rotates differentially (Ω is a function of galactocentric distance r). The distance rC at which the two angular velocities coincide (Ω(rC) = ΩP) is referred to as the → corotation radius. The corotation resonance and its position within the galaxy is one of the fundamental properties of a spiral galaxy.

corotation; → resonance.

corpuscular radiation
  تابش ِ کرپولی   
tâbeš-e karpuli

Fr.: rayonnement corpusculaire   

A stream of atomic or subatomic particles.

Corpuscular, adj. from → corpuscle; → radiation.

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