An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 204
very massive star
  ستاره‌ی ِ بسیار پرجرم   
setâre-ye besyâr porjerm

Fr.: étoile très massive   

A star of mass around 100 → solar masses. See also: → supermassive star, → massive star, → canonical upper limit.

very; → massive; → star.

very small grain (VSG)
  دانه‌ی ِ بسیار کوچک   
dâne-ye besyâr kucak

Fr.: très petit grain   

A special type of carbonaceous → interstellar dust grains with a size ranging from 10 to 150 Å and consisting of tens to hundreds of atoms. In contrast to → big grains, VSGs are not in → thermal equilibrium. They can be heated to very high temperatures (~ 1000 K) by the absorption of a single photon. It is thought that VSGs are clusters of → PAH.

very; → small; → grain.

very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI)
  اندرزنش‌سنجی با پایه-خط ِ بسیار بزرگ   
andarzanešsanji bâ pâye-xatt-e besyâr bozorg

Fr.: interférométrie à très longue base   

A technique in radio interferometry in which the individual telescopes are not directly connected together, but instead make their observations separately with very accurate timings. The data are later sent to a central correlator to be combined. With this technique the individual telescopes can be arbitrarily far apart, and so the technique provides the highest resolution images in astronomy, typically down to a few milliarcseconds.

very; → large; → baseline; → interferometry.

šividan (#)

Fr.: vibrer   

To oscillate with a continuing periodic change relative to a fixed reference point or state of equilibrium. → oscillate.

From L. vibratus, p.p. of vibrare "to move quickly to and fro, shake" (cf. Lith. wyburiu "to wag the tail," Dan. vippe, Du. wippen "to swing," O.E. wipan "to wipe").

Šividan "to vibrate, move to and fro, to tremble," related to šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

šiveš (#)

Fr.: vibration   

1) The act of vibrating. The state of being vibrated.
2) A continuing → periodic  → oscillation relative to a fixed reference point or → equilibrium state.

Verbal noun from → vibrate.

šiveši (#)

Fr.: vibrationnel   

Of or pertaining to → vibration. → vibrational mode.

vibration; → -al.

vibrational mode
  ترز ِ شیوشی   
tarz-e šiveši

Fr.: mode de vibration, ~ vibratoire   

Any of the ways in which a → molecule vibrates. Each vibrational mode has a different → frequency frequency. The number of vibrational modes of a molecule is determined by the number of atoms in it. The number of vibrational modes for a non-linear molecule is 3N - 6, where N is the number of atoms making up the molecule. For a linear molecule it is 3N - 5.

vibrational; → mode.

vibrational transition
  گذرش ِ شیوشی   
gozareš-e šiveši

Fr.: transition vibrationnelle   

A transition between two → quantized  → levels of a → molecule that have different vibrational energies.

vibrational; → transition.

  ۱) دیداره؛ ۲) دیداری   
1) didâré; 2) didâri

Fr.: vidéo   

1) (n.) The visual part of a television broadcast.
Something that has been recorded on videotape, especially a movie or music performance.
2) (adj.) Of or pertaining to the electronic apparatus for producing the television picture.

From L. video "I see," from viderevision.

Didâré, didâri, from didâr "vision, sight," verbal noun from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").

Vietnamese calendar
  گاهشمار ِ ویتنامی   
gâhšomâr-e Vietnâmi

Fr.: calendrier vietnamien   

A → lunisolar calendar used now in Vietnam mainly for determining seasonal holidays and cultural events. It is in fact the → Chinese calendar computed for Hanoi. It has 12 months of 29 or 30 days each (→ synodic month) and the year totals 355 days. The → lunar year is therefore 11 days shorter than its solar counterpart. To keep up with the solar pace, every 19 years seven extra months are added to the calendar. In practice, approximately every third year an → embolismic month is included. The New Year, called Tet, begins at the second → new moon after the → winter solstice. The Vietnamese calendar has some minor differences with the Chinese calendar. For example, it uses the cat and buffalo instead of the Chinese rabbit and cow respectively in the → zodiac.

From Vietnam "Viets of the South," from Viet the people's name + nam "south;" → lunar; → calendar.

did (#)


1) An instance of seeing or beholding; visual inspection.
2) Sight; vision (

M.E. v(i)ewe, from M.Fr. veue "sight," from V.L. *viduta, from *vidutus, from L. visus, p.p. of videre "to see," → vision.

Did, → vision.

viewing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دید   
zâviye-ye did (#)

Fr.: angle de visée   

The maximum angle at which a display, such as a TV screen, can be viewed with acceptable visual performance.

Viewing, from view, M.E. v(i)ewe (n.); M.Fr. veue "sight," feminine p.p. of veoir "to see," from L. videre "to see," → vision; → angle.

Zâviyé, → angle; didvision.

bistgâni (#)

Fr.: vicésimal   

The numeral system based on → twenty.

From L. vigesimus, variant of vicesimus, vicensimus "twentieth," from vigniti "twenty" + → -al.


Fr.: vignettage, dégradé   

The gradual reduction in energy through an optical system as the off-axis angle increases, resulting from limitations of the clear apertures of elements within the system.

From vignette "an unbordered picture, often a portrait, that shades off into the surrounding color at the edges;" "softening the edges of a picture in vignette style;" from Fr. vignette, O.Fr., diminutive of vigne "vineyard;" from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine."

Labe-puš, literally "limb covering," from labé "limb," from lab "lip;" (Mid.Pers. lap; cf. L. labium; O.E. lippa; E. lip; Ger. Lefze) + puš present stem of pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").


Fr.: Vindemiatrix   

A star located in the → Virgo constellation, also called ε Virginis. It is a yellow → giant of apparent magnitude 2.83 and → spectral type G8 III. Vindemiatrix lies about 102 → light-years from Earth, has a luminosity 83 times the → solar luminosity, and a → surface temperature about 5,000 K.

L. Vindemiatrix "grape-harvestress," feminine of vindemiator "grape-hervester," translation of Gk. names Protrugeter, Protrugetes, and Trugeter used by Ptolemy, Plutarch, and other Gk. authors. The first of these words denoted "Fruit-plucking Herald." In Gk. trugos is the process of collecting the grapes. It has been argued that the first visibility of the star in morning light was the time of gathering the grapes. The original Gk. name was translated in Ar. as al-Mutaqaddim lil-Qaţāf (المتقدم للقطاف) "Harvest Precursor," and later to Almuredin maybe with the same meaning, but the etymology is not clear.

Angurcin "grape harvester," from angur "grape" (related to quré "unripe grape," angordé "a single grape, a berry;" cf. Skt. ankurá- "buds, sprout, shoot, blossom, swelling") + cin present stem of cidan "to gather, collect," related to gozidan "to choose, select" (Mid.Pers. cyn- "to gather, collect;" Av. ci- "to heap up, gather"

  مو، تاک، رز   
mow (#), tâk (#), raz (#)

Fr.: vigne   

Any of various plants, especially the grapevine, having long flexible stems that creep along the ground or climb by clinging to a support by means of tendrils, leafstalks, etc (

M.E., from O.Fr. vigne "vine, vinyard," from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine."

Mow, tâk, raz "vine," Persian words of unknown origin.


Fr.: violer   

To break, infringe, or transgress (a law, rule, agreement, promise, instructions, etc.). → parity violation.

M.E., from L. violatus p.p. of violare "to treat with violence, violate," from violentus "violent, " from vis "force, violence."

Enâhidan infinitive from enâh, from Av. aēnah- "violence, mischief, crime, outrage," from aēn- "to do violence to, to violate, to injure, to offend;" cf. Skt. énas- "offence, mischief, crime, sin;" Gk. ainos "terrible."

  اناه، اناهش   
enâh, enâheš

Fr.: violation   

The act of violating. The state of being violated. → parity violation

Verbal noun from → violate.


Fr.: violent   

Intense in force, effect; severe; extreme.
See also: → optically violent variable (OVV) quasar, → violent galaxy, → violent interstellar environment, → violent relaxation, → violent star formation.

M.E., from violent, from L. violentus "vehement, forcible."

Surâ, from Av. sūra- "strong, powerful, mighty;" cf. Skt. śūra- "strong, powerful, valiant."

violent galaxy
  کهکشان ِ سورا   
kahkašân-e surâ

Fr.: galaxie violente   

A type of galaxy that releases a tremendous amount of energy, on the average 1058 ergs, compared with a supernova release of 1049 ergs. Violent galaxies include quasars and exploding galaxies. About 1 percent of the galaxies are classified as violent. The nearest violent galaxy is Cen A.

violent; → galaxy.

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