very massive star
setâre-ye besyâr porjerm
Fr.: étoile très massive
very small grain (VSG)
dâne-ye besyâr kucak
Fr.: très petit grain
A special type of carbonaceous → interstellar dust grains with a size ranging from 10 to 150 Å and consisting of tens to hundreds of atoms. In contrast to → big grains, VSGs are not in → thermal equilibrium. They can be heated to very high temperatures (~ 1000 K) by the absorption of a single photon. It is thought that VSGs are clusters of → PAH.
very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI)
andarzanešsanji bâ pâye-xatt-e besyâr bozorg
Fr.: interférométrie à très longue base
A technique in radio interferometry in which the individual telescopes are not directly connected together, but instead make their observations separately with very accurate timings. The data are later sent to a central correlator to be combined. With this technique the individual telescopes can be arbitrarily far apart, and so the technique provides the highest resolution images in astronomy, typically down to a few milliarcseconds.
To oscillate with a continuing periodic change relative to a fixed reference point or state of equilibrium. → oscillate.
From L. vibratus, p.p. of vibrare "to move quickly to and fro, shake" (cf. Lith. wyburiu "to wag the tail," Dan. vippe, Du. wippen "to swing," O.E. wipan "to wipe").
Šividan "to vibrate, move to and fro, to tremble," related to šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."
Verbal noun from → vibrate.
Fr.: mode de vibration, ~ vibratoire
Any of the ways in which a → molecule vibrates. Each vibrational mode has a different → frequency frequency. The number of vibrational modes of a molecule is determined by the number of atoms in it. The number of vibrational modes for a non-linear molecule is 3N - 6, where N is the number of atoms making up the molecule. For a linear molecule it is 3N - 5.
Fr.: transition vibrationnelle
1) didâré; 2) didâri
1) (n.) The visual part of a television broadcast.
From L. video "I see," from videre→ vision.
Didâré, didâri, from didâr "vision, sight," verbal noun from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").
Fr.: calendrier vietnamien
A → lunisolar calendar used now in Vietnam mainly for determining seasonal holidays and cultural events. It is in fact the → Chinese calendar computed for Hanoi. It has 12 months of 29 or 30 days each (→ synodic month) and the year totals 355 days. The → lunar year is therefore 11 days shorter than its solar counterpart. To keep up with the solar pace, every 19 years seven extra months are added to the calendar. In practice, approximately every third year an → embolismic month is included. The New Year, called Tet, begins at the second → new moon after the → winter solstice. The Vietnamese calendar has some minor differences with the Chinese calendar. For example, it uses the cat and buffalo instead of the Chinese rabbit and cow respectively in the → zodiac.
1) An instance of seeing or beholding; visual inspection.
M.E. v(i)ewe, from M.Fr. veue "sight," from V.L. *viduta, from *vidutus, from L. visus, p.p. of videre "to see," → vision.
Did, → vision.
zâviye-ye did (#)
Fr.: angle de visée
The maximum angle at which a display, such as a TV screen, can be viewed with acceptable visual performance.
The numeral system based on → twenty.
From L. vigesimus, variant of vicesimus, vicensimus "twentieth," from vigniti "twenty" + → -al.
Fr.: vignettage, dégradé
The gradual reduction in energy through an optical system as the off-axis angle increases, resulting from limitations of the clear apertures of elements within the system.
From vignette "an unbordered picture, often a portrait, that shades off into the surrounding color at the edges;" "softening the edges of a picture in vignette style;" from Fr. vignette, O.Fr., diminutive of vigne "vineyard;" from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine."
Labe-puš, literally "limb covering," from labé "limb," from lab "lip;" (Mid.Pers. lap; cf. L. labium; O.E. lippa; E. lip; Ger. Lefze) + puš present stem of pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
A star located in the → Virgo constellation, also called ε Virginis. It is a yellow → giant of apparent magnitude 2.83 and → spectral type G8 III. Vindemiatrix lies about 102 → light-years from Earth, has a luminosity 83 times the → solar luminosity, and a → surface temperature about 5,000 K.
L. Vindemiatrix "grape-harvestress," feminine of
vindemiator "grape-hervester," translation of Gk. names
Protrugeter, Protrugetes, and Trugeter
used by Ptolemy, Plutarch, and other Gk. authors. The first of these words denoted
"Fruit-plucking Herald." In Gk. trugos is the process of collecting the grapes.
It has been argued that the first visibility of the star in morning light was the time
of gathering the grapes. The original Gk. name was translated in Ar. as
al-Mutaqaddim lil-Qaţāf (
Angurcin "grape harvester," from angur "grape" (related to quré "unripe grape," angordé "a single grape, a berry;" cf. Skt. ankurá- "buds, sprout, shoot, blossom, swelling") + cin present stem of cidan "to gather, collect," related to gozidan "to choose, select" (Mid.Pers. cyn- "to gather, collect;" Av. ci- "to heap up, gather"
mow (#), tâk (#), raz (#)
Any of various plants, especially the grapevine, having long flexible stems that creep along the ground or climb by clinging to a support by means of tendrils, leafstalks, etc (Dictionary.com).
M.E., from O.Fr. vigne "vine, vinyard," from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine."
Mow, tâk, raz "vine," Persian words of unknown origin.
To break, infringe, or transgress (a law, rule, agreement, promise, instructions, etc.). → parity violation.
M.E., from L. violatus p.p. of violare "to treat with violence, violate," from violentus "violent, " from vis "force, violence."
Enâhidan infinitive from enâh, from Av. aēnah- "violence, mischief, crime, outrage," from aēn- "to do violence to, to violate, to injure, to offend;" cf. Skt. énas- "offence, mischief, crime, sin;" Gk. ainos "terrible."
The act of violating. The state of being violated. → parity violation
Verbal noun from → violate.
M.E., from O.fr. violent, from L. violentus "vehement, forcible."
Surâ, from Av. sūra- "strong, powerful, mighty;" cf. Skt. śūra- "strong, powerful, valiant."
Fr.: galaxie violente
A type of galaxy that releases a tremendous amount of energy, on the average 1058 ergs, compared with a supernova release of 1049 ergs. Violent galaxies include quasars and exploding galaxies. About 1 percent of the galaxies are classified as violent. The nearest violent galaxy is Cen A.