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differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâneyi Fr.: équation différentielle An equation expressing a relationship between an → independent variable, x, an unknown → function, y = f(x), and its → derivatives. The general form of a differential equation is: F(x, y, y', y'', ..., y^{(n)}) = 0, or F(x,y, dy/dx, d^{2}y/dx^{2}, ..., d^{n}y/dx^{n}) = 0. See also: → ordinary differential equation; → partial differential equation; → linear differential equation; → exact differential equation; → first-order differential equation; → homogeneous linear differential equation; → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation; → differential equation with separated variables; → differential equation with separable variables. → differential; → equation. |
differential equation with separable variables hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vartandehhâ-ye jodâyi-pazir Fr.: équation différentielle à variables séparables A → differential equation of the form: M_{1}(x) N_{1}(y) dx + M_{2}(x) N_{2}(y) dy = 0, which can be reduced to a → differential equation with separated variables. → differential; → equation; → separate; → variable. |
differential equation with separated variables hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vartandehhâ-ye jodâ Fr.: équation différentielle à variables séparées A → differentail equation that can be transformed into the form: M(x)dx + N(x)dy = 0. → differential; → equation; → separate; → variable. |
differential image motion monitor (DIMM) pahregar-e jonbeš-e degarsâneyi-ye vine, ~ ~ ~ tasvir Fr.: moniteur de mouvements d'images différentiels,
moniteur seeing A device that is commonly used to measure the → seeing at optical astronomical sites. The DIMM delivers an estimate of the → Fried parameter based on measuring the variance of the differential image motion in two small apertures, usually cut out in a single larger telescope pupil by a mask. The DIMM concept was introduced by Stock & Keller (1960, in Stars and Stellar Systems, Vol. 1, ed. G. P. Kuiper & B. M. Middlehurst, p. 138), whereas its modern implementation was first described by Sarazin & Roddier (1990, A&A 227, 294). → differential; → image; → motion; → monitor. |
differential refraction šekast-e dagarsâneyi Fr.: refraction différentielle A problem encountered in astronomical spectroscopy, which consists of a loss of light from some wavelengths due to → atmospheric dispersion. In simple terms, differential refraction means that at nonzero → zenith distances an object cannot be simultaneously placed at the same position within a → slit at all wavelengths. This problem becomes more important for increasing → airmass, larger → spectral range, and smaller → slitwidths. To remedy this drawback, the slit should always be oriented along a direction perpendicular to the horizon, since differential refraction occurs in that direction. → differential; → refraction. |
differential rotation carxeš-e degarsâneyi Fr.: rotation différentielle 1) Of a single body (such as a star or a gaseous planet), the axial rotation of
equatorial latitudes faster than polar latitudes. → differential; → rotation. |
differentiation degarsâneš Fr.: (Math.) dériver; (Astro.) différenciation 1) Math.: The operation of finding the → derivative
of a function. Verbal noun of → differentiate. |
diffraction parâš (#) Fr.: diffraction A wave property of light which allows it to curl around obstacles whose size is
about that of the wavelength of the light. As a → wavefront
of light passes by an opaque edge or through an opening, secondary weaker wavefronts
are generated, apparently originating at that edge. These secondary wavefronts
will interfere
with the primary wavefront as well as with each other to form a
→ diffraction pattern. From Fr. diffraction, from Mod.L. diffractionem, from L. diffrac-, stem of diffringere "break in pieces," from → dis- "apart" + frangere "to break." Parâš "dispersion, scattering," variant of pâš, pâšidan, → dispersion. |
diffraction grating turi-ye parâš (#) Fr.: réseau de diffraction An optical device containing thousands of very fine parallel grooves which produce interference patterns in a way which separates out all the components of the light into a spectrum. → diffraction; → grating. |
diffraction pattern olgu-ye parâš (#) Fr.: tache de diffraction A series of concentric rings of dark and light color produced by interference. → diffraction; → pattern. Olgu, loanword from Turkish; parâš→ diffraction. |
diffraction spike sixak-e parâš Fr.: aigrette de diffraction One of several light rays emanating from a bright light source in images taken with → reflecting telescopes. They are artifacts caused by light diffracting around the support or → spider vanes of the → secondary mirror. → diffraction; → spike. |
diffraction-limited karânmand bé parâš Fr.: limité par la diffraction The quality of an → optical system that is capable of producing images with angular resolution as small as the theoretical limit of the → Airy disk. → diffraction; limited, adj. of → limit. Karânmand "bounded, limited," from karân→ boundary + -mand possession suffix; parâš→ diffraction. |
diffuse reflection bâztâb-e paxšidé Fr.: réflexion diffuse Reflection of light from a rough or granular surface, which takes place in all directions due to the microscopic irregularities of the interface; opposed to → specular reflection. → diffuse; → reflection. |
diffuse transmission tarâgosil-e paxšidé Fr.: transmission diffuse Transmission accompanied by diffusion or scatter to the extent that there is no regular or direct transmission. → diffuse; → transmission. |
diffusion paxš (#) Fr.: diffusion 1) Movement of a gas or liquid as a result of the random thermal motion
of its atoms or molecules. L. diffusionem, from stem of diffundere "scatter, pour out," from dif- "apart, in every direction," → dis-, + fundere "to melt, cast, pour out," from PIE *gheud-, from root *gheu- "to pour." Paxš, verbal noun and stem of paxšidan→ diffuse. |
diffusion coefficient hamgar-e paxš Fr.: coefficient de diffusion A factor of proportionality involved in the → diffusion equation. It may be defined as the amount of the quantity diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time. → magnetic diffusivity. → diffusion; → coefficient. |
diffusion equation hamugeš-e paxš Fr.: équation de diffusion An equation that expresses the time rate of change of a quantity in terms of the product of the diffusion coefficient and the → Laplacian operating on the quantity. For example the diffusion equation for temperature is: ∂T/∂t = D∇^{2}T. |
diffusion region nâhiye-ye paxš Fr.: région de diffusion A narrow boundary layer above the solar → photosphere, between two magnetic field lines, where the plasma becomes demagnetized or unfrozen. The presence of a localized magnetic region is necessary for → magnetic reconnection. |
dilation farâxeš (#) Fr.: dilatation The act of dilating; state of being dilated. Also dilatation. Verbal noun of → dilate. |
dilution owtâleš Fr.: dilution The process of reducing the concentration of solute in a solution by increasing the proportion of solvent. Verbal noun of → dilute. |
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