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jump conditions butârhâ-ye jaheš Fr.: conditions de saut Very different values of pressure and density (or temperature or energy) across a shock wave. |
junction juheš Fr.: jonction In a → semiconductor device, a region of transition between semiconducting regions of different electrical properties. Junction "act of joining," from L. junctionem, noun of action from jungere "to join," cognate with Pers. yuq, juhé, as below; PIE base *yeug- "to join," Juheš, from juh, variant of yuq "yoke," Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke;" Av. yaog- "to yoke, put to; to join, unite;" cf. Skt. yugam "yoke;" Hittite yugan "yoke;" Gk. zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite;" L. jungere "to join," as above; O.C.S. igo, O.Welsh iou, Lith. jungas O.E. geoc. |
jurisdiction dâdbaxšân Fr.: juridiction 1) The right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and
determining controversies. M.E., from O.Fr. juridiccion and directly from L. iurisdictionem "administration of justice, jurisdiction," from ius "right, law," → just, + dictio "a saying; extent or range of administrative power." Dâdbaxšâ, from dâd, → justice, + baxš "division; donor, distributor, divider," from baxšidan "to divide, distribute, grant," → division, + -ân suffix of attribution and nuance |
justification râstâvard Fr.: justification 1) A reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends. What is offered
as grounds for believing an assertion. Verbal noun of → justify. Râstâvard, from râst "right, true; just, upright, straight" (Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule") + âvard past stem of âvardan "to bring; to adduce, bring forward in argument or as evidence" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry"). |
K correction aršâyeš-e K Fr.: correction K A → color index correction applied to the photometric magnitudes and colors of a distant galaxy to compensate for the "reddening" of the galaxy due to → cosmological redshift. K correction is intended to derive the magnitudes in the → rest frame of the galaxy. Typically it is given as K(z) = az + bz^{2}, where a and b depend on galaxy types. Conversely, one may deduce the redshift of a galaxy by its colors and a K-correction model. The term K correction, probably stems from the K-term used by C. W. Wirtz (1918, Astron. Nachr. 206, 109), where K stands for Konstante, the German word for constant. The K-term was a constant offset in the redshift applied to diffuse nebulae in that epoch (source: A. L. Kinney, 1996, ApJ 467, 38); → correction. |
K2 mission gosilân-e K2 Fr.: mission K2 A follow-up mission of the → Kepler satellite funded by → NASA. K2 provides an opportunity to continue Kepler's observations in the field of → exoplanets and expand its role into new astrophysical observations by assigning to Kepler new mission. K, short for → Kepler spacecraft; 2, for second → mission. |
Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction terengeš-e Kelvin-Helmholtz Fr.: contraction de Kelvin-Helmholtz The contraction of a volume of gas under its → gravity, accompanied by the → radiation of the lost → potential energy as → heat. After the Scottish physicist William Thomson, also known as Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) and the German physicist and physician Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), who made important contributions to the thermodynamics of gaseous systems; → contraction. |
Kepler's equation hamugeš-e Kepler Fr.: équation de Kepler An equation that enables the position of a body in an elliptical orbit to be calculated at any given time from its orbital elements. It relates the → mean anomaly of the body to its → eccentric anomaly. |
Keplerian rotation curve xam-e carxeš-e Kepleri (#) Fr.: courbe de rotation keplérienne A → rotation curve in which the speed of the orbiting body is inversely proportional to the → square root of its distance from the mass concentrated at the center of the system. |
Lagrange's equations hamugešhâ-ye Lagrange Fr.: équation de Lagrange A set of second order → differential equations for a system of particles which relate the kinetic energy of the system to the → generalized coordinates, the generalized forces, and the time. If the motion of a → holonomic system is described by the generalized coordinates q_{1}, q_{2}, ..., q_{n} and the → generalized velocities q^{.}_{1}, q^{.}_{2}, ..., q^{.}_{n}, the equations of the motion are of the form: d/dt (∂T/∂q^{.}_{i}) - ∂T/∂q^{.}_{i} = Q_{i} (i = 1, 2, ..., n), where T is the kinetic energy of the system and Q_{i} the generalized force. → Lagrangian; → equation. |
Lagrangian function karyâ-ye lâgrânž (#) Fr.: Lagrangien, fonction de Lagrange A physical quantity (denoted L), defined as the difference between the → kinetic energy (T) and the → potential energy (V) of a system: L = T - V. It is a function of → generalized coordinates, → generalized velocities, and time. Same as → Lagrangian, → kinetic potential. → Lagrangian; → function. |
Lambda Orionis Lâmbdâ-Šekârgar, ~-Oryon Fr.: Lambda (λ) Orionis Same as → Meissa. Lambda (λ), a Greek letter used in the → Bayer designation of star names. |
Lane-Emden equation hamugeš-e Lane-Emden Fr.: équation de Lane-Emden A second-order nonlinear → differential equation that gives the structure of a → polytrope of index n. Named after the American astrophysicist Jonathan Homer Lane (1819-1880) and the Swiss astrophysicist Robert Emden (1862-1940); → equation |
Langevin equation hamugeš-e Langevin Fr.: équation de Langevin Equation of motion for a weakly ionized cold plasma. Paul Langevin (1872-1946), French physicist, who developed the theory of magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic gas; → equation. |
Laplace's equation hamugeš-e Laplace Fr.: équation de Laplace A → linear differential equation of the second order the solutions of which are important in many fields of science, mainly in electromagnetism, fluid dynamics, and is often used in astronomy. It is expressed by: ∂^{2}V/ ∂x^{2} + ∂^{2}V/ ∂y^{2} + ∂^{2}V/ ∂z^{2} = 0. Laplace's equation can more concisely expressed by: ∇^{2}V = 0. The function V may, for example, be the potential at any point in the electric field where there is no free charge. The general theory of solutions to Laplace's equation is known as potential theory. |
Larson relation bâzâneš-e Larson Fr.: relation de Larson An → empirical relationship between the internal → velocity dispersion of → molecular clouds and their size. The velocity dispersions are derived from molecular → linewidths, in particular those of → carbon monoxide. It was first established on star forming regions and found to be: σ (km s^{-1}) = 1.10 L (pc)^{0.38}, where σ is the velocity dispersion and L the size. The relation holds for 0.1 ≤ L ≤ 100 pc. More recent set of cloud data yield: σ (km s^{-1}) = L (pc)^{0.5}. This relation indicates that larger molecular clouds have larger internal velocity dispersions. It is usually interpreted as evidence for → turbulence in molecular clouds. Possible sources of interstellar turbulence include the following processes operating at various scales: galactic-scale (→ differential rotation, → infall of extragalactic gas on the galaxy), intermediate-scale (expansion of → supernova remnants, → shocks, → stellar winds from → massive stars), and smaller-scale processes (→ outflows from → young stellar objects). First derived by Richard B. Larson, American astrophysicist working at Yale University (Larson, 1981, MNRAS 194, 809). See Falgarone et al. (2009, A&A 507, 355) for a recent study; → relation. |
Larson-Penston solution luyeš-e Larson-Penston Fr.: solution de Larson-Penston The analytical solution to the → hydrodynamic equations describing the → collapse of an → isothermal sphere. The Larson-Penston solution is → self-similar for a purely dynamical isothermal collapse with spherical symmetry. It corresponds to the collapse prior to the formation of a → protostar, and thus is suitable for the study of → pre-stellar cores. The Larson-Penston solution was extended by Shu (1977) to obtain a whole family of solutions for this problem. Named after R. B. Larson (1969, MNRAS 145, 271) and M. V. Penston (1969, MNRAS 144, 425), who simultaneously, but independently, did this study. |
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) nepâhešgâh-e mowjhâ-ye gerâneši bâ andarzaneš-sanji-ye
leyzeri Fr.: Observatoire d'ondes gravitationnelles par interférométrie laser A facility dedicated to the detection and measurement of cosmic → gravitational waves. It consists of two widely separated installations, or detectors, within the United States, operated in unison as a single observatory. One installation is located in Hanford (Washington) and the other in Livingston (Louisiana), 3,000 km apart. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), LIGO was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from the California Institute of Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and by industrial contractors. Construction of the facilities was completed in 1999. Initial operation of the detectors began in 2001. Each LIGO detector beams laser light down arms 4 km long, which are arranged in the shape of an "L." If a gravitational wave passes through the detector system, the distance traveled by the laser beam changes by a minuscule amount -- less than one-thousandth of the size of an atomic nucleus (10^{-18} m). Still, LIGO should be able to pick this difference up. LIGO directly detected gravitational waves for the first time from a binary → black hole merger (GW150914) on September 14, 2015 (Abbott et al., 2016, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102). The Nobel Prize in physics 2017 was awarded to three physicists (Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish, and Kip S. Thorne) for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves. LIGO had a prominent role in the detection of → GW170817, the first event with an → electromagnetic counterpart. → laser; → interferometer; → gravitational; → wave; → observatory. |
law of non-contradiction qânun-e nâpâdguyi Fr.: principe de non-contradiction Same as → principle of non-contradiction. → law; → non-; → contradiction. |
law of reflection qânun-e bâztâb (#) Fr.: loi de réflexion One of the two laws governing reflection of light from a surface: a) The → incident ray, normal to surface, and reflected ray lie in the same plane. b) The → angle of incidence (with the normal to the surface) is equal to the → angle of reflection. → law; → reflection. |
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