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fraction barxé (#) Fr.: fraction A rational number of the form a/b where a is called the numerator and b is called the denominator. From L.L. fractionem (nom. fractio) "a breaking in pieces," from frangere "to break," from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (cf. Goth. brikan, O.E. brecan "to break;" Lith. brasketi "crash, crack"). Barxé, from barx "lot, portion," variant bahr, from Mid.Pers. bahr "lot, share, portion," Av. baxəδra- "portion." |
fractional barxe-yi Fr.: fractionnaire, fractionné, partiel 1) Math.: Pertaining to fractions; constituting a fraction. |
fractional sky coverage pušeš-e barxe-yi-ye âsmân Fr.: couverture partielle du ciel The portion of the 4π → steradians of the sky that a radiotelescope can observe from a given location on Earth over a 24-hour time interval. → fractional; → sky; → coverage. |
fractionate barxândan Fr.: fractionner 1) To break something up into smaller parts. From → fraction + -ate a suffix forming verbs or nouns, from L. -atus, -ata, -atum. Barxândan, from barx, barxé, → fraction, + -ândan suffix of transitive verbs. |
fractionation barxâneš Fr.: fractionnement 1) Any of various methods of separating the components of a mixture into
fractions of different properties. Verbal noun from → fractionate. |
fragmentation latpâreš Fr.: fragmentation Generally, the process of breaking up into smaller parts. In particular, the splitting of a large molecular cloud into smaller, denser clumps. → cloud fragmentation. From → fragmenta + -ation, a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate. Latpâreš, verbal noun from latpâridan, → fragment. |
fragmentation process farâravand-e latpâreš Fr.: processus de fragmentation The succession of physical events that results in the breaking of a → molecular cloud into several → fragments. → fragmentation; → process. |
free expansion phase fâz-e sopâneš-e âzâd Fr.: phase d'expansion libre The first phase of → supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in which the surrounding → interstellar medium (ISM) has no influence on the expansion of the → shock wave, and the pressure of the interstellar gas is negligible. The shock wave created by the → supernova explosion moves outward into the interstellar gas at highly → supersonic speed. Assuming that most of the → supernova energy E_{SN} is transformed into → kinetic energy of the ejected gas, the ejection velocity v_{e} can be estimated from E_{SN} by using E_{SN} = (1/2) M_{e}v_{e}^{2}, which leads to v_{e} = (2E_{SN} / M_{e})^{(1/2)}, where M_{e} is the ejected mass. The schematic structure of the SNR at this phase can be described as follows: behind the strong → shock front which moves outward into the ISM, compressed interstellar gas accumulates forming a → shell of interstellar gas. This shell of swept-up material in front of shock does not represent a significant increase in the mass of the system. After some time the accumulated mass equals the ejected mass of stellar material, and it will start to affect the expansion of the SNR. By definition, this is the end of the free expansion phase, and the corresponding radius of the SNR, called → sweep-up radius, R_{SW}, is defined by M_{e} = (4π/3) R_{SW}^{3}ρ_{0}, that is R_{SW} = (3M_{e} / 4πρ_{0})^{(1/3)}, where ρ_{0} is the initial density of the ISM. This radius is reached at the sweep-up time t_{SW} = R_{SW}/v_{e}. The free expansion phase lasts some 100-200 years until the mass of the material swept up by the shock wave exceeds the mass of the ejected material. Then the following → snowplow phase starts. |
free oscillation naveš-e âzâd Fr.: oscillation libre Oscillation of any system in stable equilibrium under the influence of internal forces only, or of a constant force originating outside the system, or of both. → free; → oscillation. |
free-bound emission gosil-e âzâd-bandidé Fr.: émission libre-liée The radiation emitted when a → free electron is captured by an → ion. See also: → free-free emission; → bound-free transition. |
free-free emission gosil-e âzâd-âzâd (#) Fr.: emission libre-libre → Electromagnetic radiation produced in a → plasma by → free electrons scattering off → ions without being captured. The electrons are free before the interaction and remain free afterward. |
frequency to wavelength conversion hâgard-e basâmad bé mowj-tul Fr.: conversion fréquence / longueur d'onde Deriving the → wavelength of an undulatory phenomenon from
its → frequency, and vice versa. → frequency; → wavelength; → conversion. |
Fresnel diffraction parâš-e Fresnel (#) Fr.: diffraction de Fresnel The diffraction effects obtained when either the source of light or observing screen, or both, are at a finite distance from diffracting aperture or obstacle. → Fraunhofer diffraction. Named after Jean Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827), French physicist, a key figure in establishing the wave theory of light. His earlier work on interference was carried out in ignorance of that of Thomas Young (1773-1829), English physician and physicist, but later they corresponded and were allies; → diffraction. |
Fresnel equation hamugeš-e Fresnel Fr.: équation de Fresnel For an electromagnetic wave incident upon the interface between two media with different indices of refraction, one of a set of equations that give the → reflection coefficient and → transmission coefficient at the optical interface. These coefficients depend on the polarization degree of the incident wave. → Fresnel diffraction; → equation. |
friction mâleš (#) Fr.: frottement The resisting force offered by one body to the relative motion of another body in contact with the first. From L. frictionem "a rubbing, rubbing down," from fricare "to rub." Mâleš, verbal noun of mâlidan "to rub," from, variants parmâs "contact, touching," marz "frontier, border, boundary," Mid.Pers. mâlitan, muštan "to rub, sweep;" Av. marəz- "to rub, wipe," marəza- "border, district;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin. |
Friedmann equation hamugeš-e Friedmann Fr.: équation de Friedmann An equation that expresses energy conservation in an → expanding Universe. It is formally derived from → Einstein's field equations of → general relativity by requiring the Universe to be everywhere → homogeneous and → isotropic. It is expressed by H^{2}(t) = (8πG)/(3c^{2})ε(t) - (kc^{2})/R^{2}(t), where H(t) is the → Hubble parameter, G is the → gravitational constant, c is the → speed of light, ε(t) is the → energy density, k is the → curvature of space-time, and R(t) is the → cosmic scale factor. See also → Big Bang, → accelerating Universe. See also → Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe. Named after the Russian mathematician and physical scientist Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Friedmann (1888-1925), who was the first to formulate an → expanding Universe based on Einstein's theory of → general relativity ; → equation. |
FU Orionis object barâxt-e FU Šekârgar Fr.: objet FU Orionis A member of a class of → pre-main sequence stars that experience dramatic changes in magnitude and → spectral type. During an outburst the luminosity of such an object can increase by several orders of magnitude on short time-scales (few months to few years). The phenomenon is explained by abrupt mass transfer from an → accretion disk to a young, low mass → T Tauri star (accretion rates 10^{-4} to 10^{-3} solar masses per year). → EX Lupi; → Z CMa. |
function karyâ Fr.: fonction A mathematical rule between two sets which assigns to each element of the first exactly one element of the second, as the expression y = ax^{b}. From M.Fr. fonction, from O.Fr. function, from L. functio (gen. functionis) "performance, execution," from functus, p.p. of fungor "to perform, execute." Karyâ, from Av. kairya- "function;" cf. Mod.Pers. Laki karyâ "done," Awromâni kiriyây, kiria "to be done," from kar- "to do" (Mod.Pers. kar-, kardan "to do, to make;" Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base k^{w}er- "to do, to make") + -ya suffix of verbal adjectives and nouns (e.g. išya- "desirable," jivya- "living, fresh," haiθya- "true," maidya- "middle," dadya- "grain"); cf. Skt. kāryá- "work, duty, performance." |
functional 1) karyâyi; 2) karyâl Fr.: 1) fonctionnel; 2) fonctionnelle 1) Math.: Of, relating to, or affecting a function. |
fundamental interaction andaržireš-e bonyâdin Fr.: interaction fondamentale Any of the four interactions in nature between bodies of matter and that are mediated by one or more particles. Also called the → fundamental force. In order of decreasing strength, the four fundamental interactions are the → strong interaction, the → electromagnetic interaction, the → weak interaction, and the → gravitational interaction. → fundamental; → interaction. |
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