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Schmidt-Kennicutt relation bâzâneš-e Schmidt-Kennicutt Fr.: relation Schmidt-Kennicutt Same as the → Schmidt law. Named after the American astrophysicists Maarten Schmidt (1929-), the pioneer of research in this field, and Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr. (1951-), who developed the study; → relation. |
Schrödinger equation hamugeš-e Schrödinger Fr.: équation de Schrödinger A fundamental equation of physics in → quantum mechanics the solution of which gives the → wave function, that is a mathematical expression that contains all the information known about a particle. This → partial differential equation describes also how the wave function of a physical system evolves over time. Named after Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), the Austrian theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize 1933, who first developed the version of quantum mechanics known as → wave mechanics; → equation. |
Schrodinger equation hamugeš-e Schrödinger Fr.: équation de Schrödinger A fundamental equation of physics in → quantum mechanics the solution of which gives the → wave function, that is a mathematical expression that contains all the information known about a particle. This → partial differential equation describes also how the wave function of a physical system evolves over time. Named after Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), the Austrian theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize 1933, who first developed the version of quantum mechanics known as → wave mechanics; → equation. |
Schwarzschild solution luyeš-e Schwarzschild Fr.: solution de Schwarzschild The first exact solution of → Einstein's field equations that describes the → space-time geometry outside a spherical distribution of mass. Briefly following Einstein's publication of → General Relativity, Karl Schwarzschild discovered this solution in 1916 (Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Phys.-Math. Klasse, 189); → Schwarzschild black hole. |
Schwarzschild's criterion sanjdiâr-e Schwarzschild Fr.: critère de Schwarzschild The condition in stellar interior under which → convection occurs. It is expressed as: |dT/dr|_{ad} < |dT/dr|_{}rad, where the indices ad and rad stand for adiabatic and radiative respectively. This condition can also be expressed as: ∇_{ad}<∇_{rad}, where ∇ = d lnT / d lnP = P dT / T dP with T and P denoting temperature and pressure respectively. More explicitly, in order for convection to occur the adiabatic temperature gradient should be smaller than the actual temperature gradient of the surrounding gas, which is given by the radiative temperature gradient if convection does not occur. Suppose a hotter → convective cell or gas bubble rises accidentally by a small distance in height. It gets into a layer with a lower gas pressure and therefore expands. Without any heat exchange with the surrounding medium it expands and cools adiabatically. If during this rise and → adiabatic expansion the change in temperature is smaller than in the medium the gas bubble remains hotter than the medium. The expansion of the gas bubble, adjusting to the pressure of the medium, happens very fast, with the speed of sound. It is therefore assumed that the pressure in the gas bubble and in the surroundings is the same and therefore the higher temperature gas bubble will have a lower density than the surrounding gas. The → buoyancy force will therefore accelerate it upward. This always occurs if the adiabatic change of temperature during expansion is smaller than the change of temperature with gas pressure in the surroundings. It is assumed that the mean molecular weight is the same in the rising bubble and the medium. See also → Ledoux's criterion; → mixing length. Named after Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), German mathematical physicist (1906 Göttinger Nachrichten No 1, 41); → criterion. |
science fiction dâneš-dizan Fr.: science fiction A form of fiction that draws imaginatively on scientific knowledge and speculation in its plot, setting, theme, etc. (Dictionary.com). |
scientific notation namâdgân-e dâneši, ~ dânešik Fr.: notation scientifique A compact format for writing very large or very small numbers. Numbers are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent. For example 3.58 x 10^{4} is the scientific notation for 35,800. → scientific; → notation. |
scintillation susu (#) Fr.: scintillation 1) Rapid variation in the brightness, wavelength, and mean position of stars
caused by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. From L. scintillationem (nominative scintillatio), from scintillatus p.p. of scintillare "to send out sparks, to flash," from scintilla "particle of fire, spark." Susu, from su "light," related to suz "burning," present stem of suxtan; Mid.Pers. sôxtan, sôzidan "to burn," Av. base saoc- "to burn, inflame" sūcā- "brilliance," upa.suxta- "inflamed;" cf. Skt. śoc- "to light, glow, burn," śocati "burns," śoka- "light, flame;" PIE base *(s)keuk- "to shine." |
scintillation counter susu šomâr Fr.: compteur à scintillation A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by means of flashes produced when the radiation particles strike a sensitive layer of phosphor. → scintillation; → counter. |
Scorpius-Centaurus association âhazeš-e Každom-Kentawros Fr.: association Scorpius-Centaurus The nearest → OB association to the Sun. It contains several hundred stars, mostly → B stars which concentrate in the three subgroups: Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux. Upper Scorpius is the youngest subgroup, Upper Centaurus Lupus the oldest subgroup of the association. Isochrone fitting to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that the star formation occurred some 5-20 Myr ago. Based on data from the → Hipparcos catalog, it turns out that the Sco-Cen association lies at a distance of 118-145 → parsecs, with the exact value depending on the subgroup of the association. The Sco-Cen association is probably a member of the → Gould Belt (Preibisch & Mamajek, 2008, astro-ph/0809.0407). → Scorpius; → Centaurus; → association. |
scotopic vision did-e târiki Fr.: vision scotopique Vision that occurs when the eye is dark-adapted. In scotopic vision, the level of luminance is so low that the retinal cones are not stimulated, and there is no color vision. Same as scotopia; → dark adaptation. Scotopic, from L. Gk. skoto- combining form of skotos "darkness" + -opia akin to ope "view, look," ops "eye, face;" → vision. Did, → vision; târiki noun from târik "dark," Mid.Pers. târig "dark," târ "darkness," Av. taθra- "darkness," taθrya- "dark," cf. Skt. támisrâ- "darkness, dark night," L. tenebrae "darkness," Hittite taš(u)uant- "blind," O.H.G. demar "twilight." |
screened Coulomb interaction andaržireš-e bâparde-ye Coulomb Fr.: interaction de Coulomb écrantée The → Coulomb interaction reduced owing to the presence of other electrons. See → shielding effect. → screen; → coulomb; → interaction. |
Secchi classification radebandi-ye Secchi Fr.: classification de Secchi A pioneering work in → spectral classification conducted in the 1860s. Secchi divided stars into four main groups based on the visual observation of spectra. Class I: The white and bluish stars with a continuous spectrum crossed by hydrogen bands, the metallic bands being absent or weak. Examples, → Sirius, → Vega. Class II: Yellow stars, with spectra in which the hydrogen bands were less prominent and the metallic lines more strong. Examples, Sun, → Capella. Class III: Red or orange stars, showing bands or flutings. Examples, → Antares, → Betelgeuse. Class IV: Red stars, showing bands similar to Class III, but with the sharp edge of the flutings toward the other end of the spectrum. Secchi's scheme was superseded by the photographic → Harvard classification system. Pietro Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), Italian astronomer and Jesuit priest; → classification. |
second approximation nazdineš-e dovom Fr.: deuxième approximation Math: In calculus, limiting an equation to its → second derivative, for example: e^{x}≅ 1 + x + x^{2}/2. Also called linear approximation. → first approximation. → second; → approximation. |
second generation star setâre-ye âzâneš-e dovom Fr.: étoile de deuxième génération A star whose formation is induced by an older star itself formed previously in the same region. See also → stimulated star formation, → sequential star formation, → triggered star formation. → second; → generation; → star. |
second quantization kuântomeš-e dovom Fr.: deuxième quantification In quantum mechanics, the quantization of the field that replaces potential in Newtonian mechanics, whereby the field variables become operators from which the creation (of particle) operators and destruction operators can be constructed. → second; → quantization. |
secondary emission gosil-e dovomân Fr.: émission secondaire The emission of → secondary electrons from the surface of a material when an incident particle (often, charged particle such as electron or ion) impacts the material with sufficient energy. |
section sekanj (#) Fr.: section A part that is cut off or separated. From M.Fr. section, from L. sectionem "a cutting, division," from secare "to cut;" PIE base *sek- "cut" (cf. O.C.S. seko, sesti "to cut," Lith. isekti "to engrave, carve;" O.S. segasna, O.E. sigðe "scythe;" O.E. secg "sword," seax "knife, short sword"). Sekanj "a scraping, shaving, cutting," cognate with Pers. šekast-, šekastan "to break;" Av. skand- "to break," Skt. khand- "to break," khanda- "piece;" Pers. dialect Tabari šag "a special razor used to make incisions in the walls of unripe opium poppies in order to extract the milky sap," may be related to PIE *sek- "cut," as above. |
secular aberration birâheš-e diryâz Fr.: aberration séculaire The smallest component of the aberration of starlight which is caused by the motion of the solar system through space. → annual aberration; → diurnal aberration. → secular; → aberration. |
secular acceleration šetâb-e diryâz Fr.: accélération séculaire The apparent gradual increase in the → Moon's motion in its orbit, as measured relative to → mean solar time. Secular acceleration corresponds to an extremely gradual reduction in the speed of the → Earth's rotation. The slow-down of the Earth's spin comes mainly from → tidal frictions from the Moon. Historically, Edmond Halley (1656-1742) was the first to suggest that the Moon's mean rate of motion relative to the stars was gradually increasing. In 1693, Halley compared eclipses of recent, medieval, and classical Babylonian time, and discovered that the Moon's mean motion had been gradually increasing. Using Lunar Laser Ranging measurement, based on laser reflectors left by the Apollo astronauts on the Moon's surface (1969 to 1972), the secular acceleration is derived to be -25".4 ± 0".1 century ^{2} (Xu Huaguan et al., 1996, in Earth, Moon and Planets 73, 101). This corresponds to a linear increase of about 3.5 cm yr^{-1} in the mean Earth-Moon distance. → secular; → acceleration. |
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