# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1965 Search : ion
 recursion   باز‌آیش   bâzâyešFr.: récursion, récursivité   1) A running backward, return. 2) Math.: A process in which objects are defined by the repeated application of a rule or algorithm.From L. recursionem (nominative recursio); → recurrent.Bâzâneš, verbal noun of bâzâmadan, → recur. recursive definition   هدارش ِ باز‌آیشی   hedâreš-e bâzâyešiFr.: définition récursive   Math.: A definition of a function from which values of the same function can be calculated in a finite number of steps. In mathematical logic and computer science, a recursive definition is used to define an object in terms of itself. An example is the → factorial: n! = n*(n-1)!→ recursive; → definition. reddening function   کریای ِ سرخش   karyâ-ye sorxešFr.: fonction de rougissement   The normalized interstellar extinction at a given wavelength. It is defined by f(λ) = A(λ)/A(Hβ) - 1, where A(λ) is the extinction at the given wavelength and A(Hβ) the extinction at Hβ, with f(Hβ) = 0. It is used to → de-redden observed fluxes: I(λ)/I(Hβ) = F(λ)/F(Hβ).10c(Hβ).f(λ), where I represents the flux in the absence of extinction and F the observed flux affected by extinction, c(Hβ) being the → reddening coefficient.→ reddening; → function. redshift space distortion   چولگی ِ فضای ِ سرخ-کیب   cowlegi-ye fazâ-ye sorx-kibFr.: distorsion dûe aux vitesses particulières sur la ligne de visée   The distortion observed in → redshift space of → galaxy clusters caused by peculiar velocities of the members (→ peculiar velocity). In a perfectly homogeneous → Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe the redshifts would accurately measure radial distances from the observer, and the mapping from real space to redshift space would simply be an identity. In an inhomogeneous Universe the peculiar velocities associated with any inhomogeneous structure will introduce a distortion in this mapping (N. Kaiser, 1987, MNRAS 227, 1). See also: → fingers of God, → Kaiser effect.→ redshift; → space; → distortion;. redshift-distance relation   بازانش ِ سرخ‌کیب-دورا   bâzâneš-e sorxkib-durâFr.: relation décalage vers le rouge-distance   The correlation, first established by E. Hubble, between the cosmological recession velocities of galaxies and their distances.→ redshift; → distance; → relation. reduction   باز‌هازش   bâzhâzešFr.: réduction   1) In → data processing, the transformation of data from a "raw" form to some usable form. 2) Chem.: The removal of → oxygen from a substance, or the addition of → hydrogen to it. The term is also used more generally to include any reaction in which an atom gains → electrons.Verbal noun of → reduce. reflection   بازتاب   bâztâb (#)Fr.: réflexion   The return of radiation after striking a surface, without change in wavelength. If the surface is smooth, reflection is regular, otherwise it is diffuse. → diffuse reflection; → specular reflection.Verbal noun of → reflect. reflection coefficient   همگر ِ بازتاب   hamgar-e bâztâb (#)Fr.: coefficient de réflexion   The ratio given by the → amplitude (or energy) of a reflected wave divided by the amplitude (or energy) of the incident wave. reflection factor   کروند ِ بازتاب   karvand-e bâztâbFr.: facteur de réflexion   The ratio of total flux that is reflected from a surface to the incident flux. Also called reflectance, reflectivity.→ reflection; → factor. reflection nebula   میغ ِ بازتابی   miq-e bâztâbiFr.: nébuleuse par réflexion   A type of nebula that is visible from its reflection of starlight. Bright stars near reflection nebulae emit light into the region that is reflected by the large amount of dust there. The size of the dust grains causes blue light to be reflected more efficiently than red light, so these reflection nebulae frequently appear blue in color.→ reflection; → nebula. refraction   شکست   šekast (#)Fr.: réfraction   1) Optics: The change of direction which a beam of light undergoes as it enters a medium of different → refractive index. 2) Acoustics: The change in direction in sound waves on reaching the boundary between two media. 3) Seismology: The bending of a seismic wave as it enters a material of different density.From L.L. refractionem (nominative refractio) "a breaking up," from L. refractus, p.p. of refringere "to break up," from re- "back" + combining form of frangere "to break," from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (cf. Goth. brikan, O.E. brecan "to break;" Lith. brasketi "crash, crack").Šekast, past stem of šekastan "to break, split;" Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand "to beak, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;" PIE sken- "to cut off." refutation   واکوتش   vâkutešFr.: réfutation   The act or process of refuting.→ refute; → -tion. regeneration   باز-آزانش   bâz-âzânešFr.: regénération   1) Act of regenerating; state of being regenerated. 2) Electronics: A feedback process in which energy from the output of an amplifier is fed back to the grid circuit to reinforce the input. 3) Biology: The restoration or new growth by an organism of organs, tissues, etc., that have been lost, removed, or injured (Dictionary.com).→ re-; → generation. region   ناحیه   nâhiyé (#)Fr.: région   A large, usually continuous segment of a surface or space; area. → H II region.M.E., from Anglo-Fr. regioun; O.Fr. region, from L. regionem (nominative regio) "district, country, direction, boundary," from regere "to direct," cognate with Pers. râst, → right.Nâhiyé, loan from Ar. nâHiyat. registration   برنوسش   barnusešFr.: enregistrement   1) The act or instance of registering. 2) An entry in a register (Dictionary.com).→ register; → -tion. regression   ۱) پسرفت؛ ۲) وایازی، وایازش   1) pasraft (#); 2) vâyâzi (#), vâyâzeš (#)Fr.: régression   1) Astro.: → retrograde motion. 2) Geology: A retreat of the sea from land areas. Possible causes include a drop in sea level or uplift. 3) Math.: A method for fitting a curve through a set of points using some goodness-of-fit criterion. The most common type of regression is → linear regression.From L. regression-, from regress-, stem of regredi "to go back," from → re- "back" + gradi "to step, walk."1) → retrograde. 2) On the model of → progression, from vâ-→ re- + yâzi, yâzeš, verbal noun of yâzidan "to stretch out the arms; grow up" (Parthian Mid.Pers. y'd "to reach a goal, come to, stretch out;" Av. yat- "to reach, take one's place," yaiiata "places," frā-iiatāt "has reached;" cf. Skt. yat- "to be in place, put in place, line up;" PIE base *iet- "to be in place"). regression analysis   آنالس ِ وایازش   anâlas-e vâyâzešFr.: analyse de régression   A statistical technique used to determine the values of parameters for a function that best fits a given set of data.→ regression, → analysis. regression coefficient   همگر ِ وایازش   hamgar-e vâyâzeš (#)Fr.: coefficient de régression   The slope of the straight line that most closely relates two correlated variables. regression curve   خم ِ وایازش   xam-e vâyâzešFr.: courbe de régression   A curve representing a non-linear relationship between two or more → variables.→ regression, → curve. regression equation   هموگش ِ وایازش   hamugeš-e vâyâzešFr.: équation de régression   A mathematical expression that describes the relationship between two or more variables. It indicates the nature of the relationship and, in particular, the extent to which one can predict some variables by knowing others.→ regression, → equation.