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population inversion vâgardâni-ye porineš, vâruneš-e ~ Fr.: inversion des populations In physics, specifically statistical mechanics, the state of an atomic or molecular system in which the number of members in an excited state is larger than those in lower energy states. → optical pumping; → inverted population. → population; → inversion. |
portion pÃ¢reš (#), pÃ¢re (#), pÃ¢rag (#) Fr.: portion 1) A part of any whole, either separated from or integrated with it. M.E. porcion, from O.Fr. porcion "part, portion, share," from partion- "share, part, piece," related to pars, → part. PÃ¢reš, from pâr "part, portion, piece" (variants pâré, parré "portion, segment (of an orange)," pargâlé, "piece, portion; patch;" (dialects Kermâni pariké "portion, half;" Tabari perik "minute quantity, particle;" Lârestâni pakva "patch;" Borujerdi parru "patch"); Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assigne;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" L. pars, as above; Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble") + -eš suffix. |
position 1) neheš (#); 2) neheš-dâdan Fr.: 1) position; 2) positionner 1a) Condition with reference to place; location; situation. M.E. posicioun, from O.Fr. posicion, from L. positionem "act or fact of placing, position, affirmation," from positus, p.p. stem of ponere "to put, place." Neheš, verbal noun from nehâdan "to place, put; to set;" Mid.Pers. nihâtan, from ne-, ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + dâ- "to put; to establish; to give," dadâiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadâti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give"). Neheš-dâdan, from neheš "position," + dâdan "to give, yield, put," → datum. |
position angle zâviye-ye neheš Fr.: angle de position The convention for measuring angles on the sky in astronomy (Abbreviated as PA). It is the direction of an imaginary arrow in the sky, measured from north through east: 0Â° = north, 90Â° = east, 180Â° = south, and so on to 359Â° and back to 0Â°. Applied to a binary system it is the direction of a secondary body or feature from a primary, measured in the system. . |
position switching degarbâni-ye neheš Fr.: permutation de position In single dish astronomy, an observing mode in which the telescope is moved between the object position and a user defined reference position. The aim is to eliminate unwanted signals in the baseline. → beam switching; → frequency switching. |
positional neheši (#) Fr.: de position, positionnel Relating to or determined by position. |
positional astronomy axtaršenâsi-ye neheši Fr.: astronomie de position The branch of astronomy that is used to determine the location of objects on the celestial sphere, as seen at a particular date, time, and location on the Earth. Same as → spherical astronomy. → positional; → astronomy. |
positional notation nemâdgân-e neheši Fr.: notation positionnelle A system of representing → numbers in which the → position of a → digit in a string of digits affects its value. The decimal system is a positional notation for expressing numbers. Same as → place-value notation and → positional number system. → positional; → notation. |
positional number system rÃ¢žmÃ¢n-e adadi-ye neheši Fr.: systÃ¨me de numÃ©ration positionnel A → number system in which the value of each digit is determined by which place it appears in the full number. The lowest place value is the rightmost position, and each successive position to the left has a higher place value. In the → number system conversion, the rightmost position represents the "ones" column, the next position represents the "tens" column, the next position represents "hundreds", etc. The values of each position correspond to powers of the → base of the number system. For example, in the usual decimal number system, which uses base 10, the place values correspond to powers of 10. Same as → place-value notation and → positional notation. See also → number system conversion. → positional; → number; → system. |
positioning nehešdâd Fr.: positionnement The act or process of putting in a particular position or determining the psition of. |
positive correlation hambâzâneš-e dâhidâr Fr.: correlation positive Same as → direct correlation. → positive; → correlation. |
possession dÃ¢rešt Fr.: possession 1) The act or fact of possessing; the state of being possessed. DÃ¢rešt, verbal noun of dÃ¢štan "to have, possess" (on the model of konešt, from kardan; xoršt, from xordan; bÃ¢lešt, from bÃ¢lidan; rÃ¢mešt, from rÃ¢midan; (Lori) zenešt, from zadan; (NowdÃ¢n, FÃ¢rs) perešt, from paridan); Mid.Pers. dÃ¢r-, dÃ¢štan "to have, hold, preserve;" O.Pers./Av. dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" Skt. dhr- "to hold, keep, preserve," dharma- "what is established or firm; law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *d^{h}er- "to hold, support." |
post-Newtonian expansion sopÃ¢neš-e pasâ-Newtoni Fr.: développement post-newtinien |
power function karyâ-ye tavâni Fr.: fonction de puissance A function of the form f(x) = x^{n}, where n is a → real number. |
power-law distribution vâbâžeš bâ qânun-e tavâni Fr.: distribution en loi de puissance For a → random variable X, any → distribution which has the form: P(X ≥ x) = (k/x)^{α}, where x is a value in the range defined for X, k > 0 is a parameter termed location parameter, and α > 0 is the → slope parameter. → power; → law; → distribution. |
practitioner varzmand Fr.: praticien A professional man, especially in medicine and the law. |
pre-dispersion piš-pâšeš Fr.: pré-dispersion A technique in spectroscopy which uses a combination of several dispersive elements (prisms in series or a grism) before focusing the light on the primary disperser, usually a grating, in order to achieve high spectral resolutions. → pre-; → dispersion. |
precession pišâyân Fr.: précession The periodic motion of the → rotation axis of a
body such as a → spinning top
in which the axis of rotation gradually sweeps out a conical shape.
In the case of the spinning Earth, it is due to the combined
→ gravitational attractions of
the → Sun, the → Moon,
and → planets on Earth's
→ equatorial bulge. Since
the Earth's axis is tilted to its → orbital plane or
→ ecliptic, the gravitational force of the Sun and the Moon
on the Earth's equatorial bulge tend to pull it back
toward the plane of ecliptic. As a result, the axis → precesses.
Earth's axis of rotation precesses with a period of about 25,770 years, describing
one complete circle on the → celestial sphere
(→ precession constant). This circle has a radius
of approximately 23Â°.5, equal to the → inclination
of the Earth's orbit. Since the → vernal equinox
is the reference direction for the
→ equatorial coordinate system, the coordinates of "fixed" objects
change with time and must therefore be referred to an
→ epoch at which they are correct.
→ sign of zodiac. L.L. prÃ¦cissionem "a coming before," from L. prÃ¦cessus, p.p. of prÃ¦cedere "to happen before," from the fact that the equinoxes occur earlier each year with respect to the preceding year, from prÃ¦- "before," → pre-, + cedere "to walk, to go, to happen." Pišâyân, literally "coming before," from piš- "before" → pre- + ây- (present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become"), from Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go;" + -ân suffix of space and time. |
precession constant pâyâ-ye pišâyân Fr.: constante de précession The amount by which the equinoctial points drift westward annually due to precession. Its value for epoch J2000.0 is 50''.26, resulting from the westward → precession of the equator (50".38), and the eastward → precession of the ecliptic (0".12). → precession; → constant. |
precession of the ecliptic pišâyân-e hurpeh Fr.: précession de l'écliptique The component of general precession caused by the gravitational attraction of the planets on the Earth's center of mass. It causes the equinox to move eastward by about 0''.12 per year in the opposite direction to the → precession of the equator. This terminology replaces → planetary precession, according to an IAU resolution adopted in August 2006. → precession; → ecliptic. |
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