<< < "no abs acc ads amb ann arg ato B-m bla bro cat Che co- col com com con con con cor cro dec def dep dif dil dis dis dur eje emi equ evo exp fab fis fra fus geo gra gra har Huy ima ind inf ins int int ion jum law lin low mag mat mic Moo nec non nuc obs opp Ori par per per phy ple pop pre pro pro pul rad rad Ray rec reg rep Ric rot Sch sec Sha soc spe sta ste sub syn the tot tri uni Ven vis wor > >>
blackbody radiation tâbeš-e siyah-jesm (#) Fr.: rayonnement de corps noir The radiation emitted by a blackbody at a given → temperature. The → distribution of radiation with → wavelength is given by → Planck's blackbody formula or → Planck's radiation law. |
blue region nâhiye-ye âbi Fr.: région bleue The portion of the → visible spectrum lying between 455 and 492 nm. |
Boeshaar-Keenan classification radebandi-ye Boeshaar-Keenan Fr.: classification de Boeshaar-Keenan A system for the classification of → S-type stars. The system involves the designations of a C/O index and a temperature type. Moreover, when possible, it uses intensity estimates for → ZrO bands, the → TiO bands, the → Na I D-lines, the YO bands, and the Li I 6708 line. Philip C. Keenan & Patricia C. Boeshaar, 1980, ApJS, 43, 379; → classification. |
bolometric correction aršâyeš-e tafsanji, ~ tafsanjik Fr.: correction bolométrique The difference between the → visual magnitude and → bolometric magnitude. → bolometric; → correction. |
Boltzmann's equation hamugeš-e Boltzmann Fr.: équation de Boltzmann 1) An equation that expresses the relative number (per unit volume) of → excited atoms in different states as a function of the temperature for a gas in → thermal equilibrium: N_{u}/N_{l} = (g_{u}/g_{l}) exp (-ΔE/kT_{ex}), where N_{u} and N_{l} are the upper level and lower level populations respectively, g_{u} and g_{l} the → statistical weights, ΔE = hν the energy difference between the states, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and h → Planck's constant. → Boltzmann's constant; → equation. |
Boltzmann's relation bâzâneš-e Boltzmann Fr.: relation de Boltzmann A relation between the → entropy of a given → state of a → thermodynamic system and the → probability of the state: S = k . ln Ω where S is the entropy of the system, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and Ω the thermodynamic probability of the state. Boltzmann's relation connects → statistical mechanics and → thermodynamics. Ω is the number of possible → microstates of the system, and it represents the → randomness of the system. The relation also describes the statistical meaning of the → second law of thermodynamics. This expression has been carved above Boltzmann's name on his tombstone in Zentralfreihof in Vienna. Same as → Boltzmann's entropy formula. → Boltzmann's constant; → relation. |
Bondi-Hoyle accretion farbâl-e Bondi-Hoyle Fr.: accrétion de Bondi-Hoyle The → accretion of mass by a star (assumed as point particle) moving at a steady speed through an infinite, uniform gas cloud. It is directly proportional to the star mass (M) and the medium density (ρ) and inversely proportional to the relative star/gas velocity (v). In its classical expression: 4πρ(G M)^{2} / v^{3}, where G is the → gravitational constant. See Bondi & Hoyle (1944, MNRAS 104, 273) and Bondi (1952, MNRAS 112, 195). For a recent treatment of accretion in a turbulent medium see Krumholtz et al. 2006 (ApJ 638, 369). Named after Hermann Bondi (1919-2005), an Anglo-Austrian mathematician and cosmologist and Fred Hoyle (1915-2001), British mathematician and astronomer best known as the foremost proponent and defender of the steady-state theory of the universe; → accretion. |
Bondi-Hoyle accretion radius šo'â'-e farbâl-e Bondi-Hoyle Fr.: rayon de l'accrétion de Bondi-Hoyle In the → Bondi-Hoyle accretion process, the radius where the gravitational energy owing to star is larger than the kinetic energy and, therefore, at which material is bound to star. The Bondi-Hoyle accretion radius is given by R_{BH} = 2 GM / (v^{2} + c_{s}^{2}) where G is the gravitational constant, M is the stellar mass, v the gas/star relative velocity, and c_{s} is the sound speed. → Bondi-Hoyle accretion; → radius. |
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) cagâleš-e Bose-Einstein Fr.: condensation de Bose-Einstein A → quantum phase transition during which the → bosons constituting a sufficiently cooled boson gas are all clustered in the → ground energy state. The phase transition results in a → Bose-Einstein condensate. This phenomenon occurs when the temperature becomes smaller than a critical value given by: T_{c} = (2πħ^{2} / km)(n / 2.612)^{2/3}, where m is mass of each boson, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and n is the particle number density. When T ≤ T_{c}, the → de Broglie wavelength of bosons becomes comparable to the distance between bosons. → boson; → Einstein; → condensation. |
Bose-Einstein distribution vâbâžeš-e Bose-Einstein Fr.: distribution de Bose-Einstein For a → population of independent → bosons, a function that specifies the number of particles in each of the allowed → energy states. → boson; → Einstein; → distribution. |
bottom-up structure formation diseš-e sâxtâr az pâyin bé
bâlâ Fr.: formation des structures du bas vers le haut A → structure formation scenario in which small galaxies form first, and larger structures are then formed in due course. Contrary to → top-down structure formation. |
bound-bound transition gozareš-e bandidé-bandidé Fr.: transition liée-liée A transition between two energy levels of an electron bound to a nucleus. The electron remains tied to the nucleus before and after the transition. → bound-free transition; → free-free emission. Bound, p.p. of → bind; → transition. |
bound-free transition gozareš-e bandidé-âzâd Fr.: transition liée-libre A transition in which a bound electron is liberated. → free-bound emission; → free-free emission. |
boundary conditions butârhâ-ye karân, ~ karâni Fr.: conditions à la limite 1) Math: Restriction on the limits of applicability of an equation.
In a differential equation, conditions that allow to fix the constant
of integration and reach a unique solution. The number of boundary conditions
necessary to determine a solution matches the order of the equation. |
bounded function karyâ-ye karânmand, ~ karândâr Fr.: fonction bornée The function y = f(x) in a given range of the argument x if there exists a positive number M such that for all values of x in the range under consideration the inequality | f(x) | ≤ M will be fulfilled. → unbounded function. |
Boussinesq approximation nazdineš-e Boussinesq Fr.: approximation de Boussinesq A simplification in the equations of → hydrodynamics that treats the density as constant except in the → buoyancy term. This approximation is motivated by the fact that when pressure and temperature differences in a flow are small, then it follows from the thermodynamic → equation of state that a change in the density is also small. Named after Joseph Valentin Boussinesq (1842-1929), a French physicist who made significant contributions to the theory of hydrodynamics, vibration, light, and heat; → approximation. |
brecciation berešeš Fr.: bréchification The formation of → breccia. Verbal noun of → brecciate. |
brightness distribution vâbâžeš-e deraxšandegi Fr.: distribution de brillance A statistical distribution of the brightness of an astronomical extended object. → brightness; → distribution. Vâbâžeš, → distribution; deraxšandegi, → brightness. |
Brillouin function karyâ-ye Brillouin Fr.: fonction de Brillouin A mathematical function appearing in the → magnetization equation of a → paramagnetic substance. → Brillouin zone; → zone. |
BRITE-Constellation BRITE-hamaxtarân Fr.: BRITE-Constellation An international collaboration between Austria, Canada, and Poland, currently comprising five nano-satellites to investigate stellar structure and evolution of the brightest stars in the sky and their interaction with the local environment. BRITE is also used to study micropulsation, wind phenomena, and other forms of stellar variability. These nano-satellites aim to monitor stars brighter than V ~ 5 mag using two color pass-bands, over various observing campaigns. Each nano-satellite hosts a 3 cm telescope, providing a wide field of view (24° x 20°) to simultaneously observe up to a few dozen stars (Weiss et al. 2014). BRITE, short for → BRIght Target Explorer; → bright; → target; → explorer. |
<< < "no abs acc ads amb ann arg ato B-m bla bro cat Che co- col com com con con con cor cro dec def dep dif dil dis dis dur eje emi equ evo exp fab fis fra fus geo gra gra har Huy ima ind inf ins int int ion jum law lin low mag mat mic Moo nec non nuc obs opp Ori par per per phy ple pop pre pro pro pul rad rad Ray rec reg rep Ric rot Sch sec Sha soc spe sta ste sub syn the tot tri uni Ven vis wor > >>