# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 15 Search : thermodynamic
 first law of thermodynamics   قانون ِ نخست ِ گرماتوانیک   qânun-e naxost-e garâtavânikFr.: première loi de la thermodynamique   The total energy of a → closed system is constant. This means that energy can be changed from one form to another, or transferred from one system to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. A mathematical formulation of the first law is: δQ = δU + δW, where δQ is the heat transferred to the system, δU the change in internal energy (resulting in a rise or fall of temperature), and δW is the work done by the system.→ first; → law; → thermodynamics. local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)   ترازمندی ِ گرماتوانیک ِ محلی   tarâzmandi-ye garmâtavânik-e mahaliFr.: équilibre thermodynamique local   The assumption that all distribution functions characterizing the material and its interaction with the radiation field at a point in the star are given by → thermodynamic equilibrium relations at local values of the temperature and density.→ local; → thermodynamic; → equilibrium. non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE)   ترازمندی ِ گرماتوانیک ِ نامحلی   tarâzmandi-ye garmâtavânik-e nâmahaliFr.: hors équilibre thermodynamique local   A physical condition in which the assumption of the → local thermodynamic equilibrium does not hold. second law of thermodynamics   قانون ِ دوم ِ گرماتوانیک   qânun-e dovom-e garmâtavânikFr.: deuxième loi de la thermodynamique   1) Heat cannot be transferred from a colder to a hotter body without some other effect, i.e. without → work being done. Expressed in terms of → entropy: the entropy of an → isolated system tends toward a maximum and its available energy tends toward a minimum. 2) In language of → statistical physics, an isolated physical system will tend toward an equilibrium → macrostate with as large a total → entropy as possible, because then the number of → microstates is the largest. See also → Kelvin's postulate, → Clausius's postulate.→ second; → law; → thermodynamics. statistical thermodynamics   گرماتوانیک ِ آماری   garmâtavânik-e âmâriFr.: thermodynamique statistique   Same as → statistical mechanics. thermodynamic   گرماتوانیک   garmâtavânikFr.: thermodynamique   Of or pertaining to → thermodynamics.→ thermo-; → dynamic. thermodynamic equilibrium   ترازمندی ِ گرماتوانیک   tarâzmandi-ye garmâtavânikFr.: équilibre thermodynamique   The condition of a → thermodynamic system in which the available → energy is distributed uniformly among all the possible forms of energy. Furthermore, all → thermodynamic process es must be exactly balanced by their reverse processes. For example, inside a star there will be as many → ionizations of helium per second as there are → recombinations of free electrons and helium ions. Se also → local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). thermodynamic path   په ِ گرماتوانیک   pah-e garmâtavânikFr.: chemin thermodynamique   The loci of various changes between two → states through which a → thermodynamic system passes during a → thermodynamic process.→ thermodynamic; → path. thermodynamic potential   توند ِ گرماتوانیک   tavand-e garmâtavânikFr.: potentiel thermodynaique   A measure of the energy level of a → thermodynamic system. It represents the amount of → work obtainable when the system undergoes a → change. The main types of thermodynamic potential are: → internal energy, → enthalpy, the → Helmholtz free energy, and the → Gibbs free energy. thermodynamic process   فراروند ِ گرماتوانیک   farâravand-e garmâtavânikFr.: processus thermodynamique   An ordered set of → equilibrium states undergone by a → thermodynamic system. Thermodynamics processes have various types: → cyclic process, → reversible process, and → irreversible process, → isothermal process, → adiabatic process, → isentropic process.→ thermodynamic; → process. thermodynamic system   راژمان ِ گرماتوانیک   râžmân-e garmâtavânikFr.: système thermodynamique   A quantity of substance or a working machine which in a well-defined way is set apart from its → environment. The boundary between the system and its surroundings can be real or an imaginary mathematical envelope. A thermodynamic system is not necessarily bound to a predefined geometry. Thermodynamic systems can be divided into three types: → open systems, → closed systems, and → isomated systems.→ thermodynamic; → system. thermodynamic temperature   دمای ِ گرماتوانیک   damâ-ye garmâtavânikFr.: température thermodynamique   A temperature scale, measured in → kelvin (K), that is related to the energy possessed by matter; it was formerly known as → absolute temperature. The zero point on the scale (0 K) is absolute zero. Thermodynamic temperature can be converted to temperature on the → Celsius scale by subtracting 273.15.→ thermodynamic; → temperature. thermodynamics   گرماتوانیک   garmâtavânikFr.: thermodynamique   A branch of physics concerned with the relations between heat and other forms of energy and how these affect temperature, pressure, volume, mechanical action, and work.→ thermo-; → dynamics, coined by the Scottish physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin, 1824-1907), in 1849. third law of thermodynamics   قانون ِ سوم ِ گرماتوانیک   qânun-e sevom-e garmâtavânikFr.: troisième loi de la thermodynamique   The → entropy of an idealized state of maximum order is zero at the temperature of → absolute zero. Another version of this law: As a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value.→ third; → law; → thermodynamics. zeroth law of thermodynamics   قانون ِ صفرُم ِ گرماتوانیک   qânun-e sefrom-e garmâtavânikFr.: loi zéro de la thermodynamique   Two objects that are in → thermal equilibrium with a third object will be in thermal equilibrium with each other.→ zero; → law; → thermodynamics.