An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 373
observability
  نپاهش‌پذیری   
nepâhešpaziri

Fr.: observabilité   

1) General: The character of something that can be observed.
2) Astro.: The possibility that an object be observable at a particular time.
3) Control theory: A measure for how well internal states of a system can be inferred by knowledge of its external outputs.

From → observable + → -ity.

observable
  نپاهیدنی، نپاهش‌پذیر   
nepâhidani, nepâhešpazir

Fr.: observable   

1) Capable of being or liable to be observed.
2) A quantity that can be measured.
3) Quantum mechanics: A → real dynamical variable whose → eigenstates form a → complete set.

From → observe + → -able.

observable universe
  گیتی ِ نپاهیدنی، ~ نپاهش‌پذیر   
giti-ye nepâhidani, ~ nepâhešpazir

Fr.: univers observable   

The extent of the Universe that we can see with the aid of the largest telescopes. Its ultimate boundary is determined by the → cosmic horizon size.

observable; → universe.

observance
  نپاهداری   
nepâhdâri

Fr.: observance, observation   

1) An act or instance of following a custom, rule, or law.
2) A customary practice, rite, or ceremony; a rule governing members of a religious order.
3) An act or instance of watching (Merriam-Webster.com).

observe; → -ance.

Nepâhdâri, on the model of negâhdâri "preservation, protection," from nepâhdâr, → observant, + -i.

observant
  نپاهدار   
nepâhdâr

Fr.: observateur, perspicace   

1) Paying strict attention.
2) Careful in observing (Merriam-Webster.com).

observe + -ant, a suffix forming adjective, → -ance.

Nepâhdâr, from nepâh present stem of nepâhidan, → observe, + dâr preset stem and agent noun of dâštan, dâridan "to have, hold, maintain, possess," → protected band.

observation
  نپاهش، نپاه   
nepâheš, nepâh

Fr.: observation   

1) Act or instance of observing; → observe.
2) Careful watching of an astronomical object or event using appropriate instruments, usually for collecting data.

Verbal noun of → observe.

observational
  نپاهشی   
nepâheši

Fr.: observationnel   

Pertaining to, or founded on observation, especially based on observation rather than theory.

Adj. of → observation.

observational astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ نپاهشی   
axtarfizik-e nepâheši

Fr.: astrophysique observationnelle   

That part of astrophysics that is mainly concerned with the collection of observational data, in comparison with theoretical astrophysics

observational; → astrophysics.

observational bias
  وَرک ِ نپاهشی   
varak-e nepâheši

Fr.: biais observationnel   

An error in observation arising from systematically favoring brighter or weaker objects or some particular object morphologies; e.g. → Malmquist bias.

observational; → bias.

observational cosmology
  کیهان‌شناسی ِ نپاهشی   
keyhânšenâsi-ye nepâheši

Fr.: cosmologie observationnelle   

The application of observational data to the study of the Universe as a whole.

observational; → cosmology.

observational effect
  ا ُسکر ِ نپاهشی   
oskar-e nepâheši

Fr.: effet observationnel   

A feature appearing in an observation, which is not intrinsic to the object observed, but is due to the inappropriate method used (e.g. limited angular resolution).

observational; → effect.

observational error
  ایرنگ ِ نپاهشی   
irang-e nepâheši

Fr.: erreur observationnelle   

The difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value.

observational; → error.

observatory
  نپاهشگاه   
nepâhešgâh

Fr.: observatoire   

A place or building equipped for making observations of astronomical, meteorological, or other natural phenomena, especially a place provided with a telescope for observing astronomical objects.

From Fr. observatoire, from L. observa(re), → observe, + -toire, from L. -torius, from -tor a suffix forming agent nouns + -ius adj. suffix.

Nepâhešgâh, from nepâheš, → observation, + -gâh suffix of place (O.Pers. gāθu-, Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot" (Skt. gátu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode," PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

observe
  نپاهیدن   
nepâhidan

Fr.: observer   

To watch carefully or note for a scientific or special purpose, e.g. to observe a star (astronomy), to observe the behavior of a patient (medicine, psychology), an animal (ethology, zoology), social groups (sociology), etc.

From O.Fr. observer, from L. observare "watch over, look to, attend to, guard," from ob "over" + servare "to watch, keep safe," from PIE base *ser- "to protect;" cf. Av. har- "to guard, observe, pay attention to," haraiti "guards, keeps," harətar- "protector, watcher," harəθra- "guarding, protection," hāra- "watched, guarded," Mod.Pers. zinhâr "beware!, mind!," Gk. heros "protector, hero."

Note 1: Observation is the most important basis of empirical sciences. All theories rely on observation, and must finally be supported by observational evidence. Persian, in contrast to European languages, lacks a distinct term that recognizes observation as a conceptual premise of sciences. In astronomy the Ar. rasad (رصد) is currently used, while in classical astronomical texts the Pers. pâyidan (پاییدن) is used mainly by prominent figures like Biruni and Tusi. However, the term rasad is never used for cases outside astronomy. The situation for other sciences is not clear. Often one resorts to the Ar. loanword mošâhedé "to look at each other," which lacks ability to form derivatives. Therefore, here we suggest a term that can be used in all fields of knowledge.

Nepâhian, from ne- + pâhidan. The prefix ne- "down; into" (as in negâh "look, glance," negaristan "to view, look at," nešastan "to sit down," nemudan "to display") from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down, into;" cf. Skt. ni "down," nitaram "downward," Gk. neiothen "from below," cf. E. nether, O.E. niþera, neoþera "down, downward, below, beneath," from P.Gmc. *nitheraz, Du. neder, Ger. nieder; PIE *ni- "down, below."
The second component pâhidan, variants pâyidan, pâsidan "to watch, observe, look steadily;" Mid.Pers. pây- "to protect, guard;" Sogdian p'y "to observe, protect, watch over;" O.Pers. pā- "to protect," pāta- "protected;" Av. pā- "to protect," pāti "guards," nipā(y)- (with ni-) "to watch, observe, guard," nipātar- "protector, watcher," nipāθri- "protectress;" cf. Skt. pā- "to protect, keep," tanû.pā- "protecting the body," paś.pā- "shepherd;" Gk. poma "lid, cover," poimen "shepherd;" L. pascere "to put out to graze," pastor "shepherd;" Lith. piemuo "shepherd;" PIE base *pā- "to protect, feed."

Note 2: Since pây-, pâyidan is used for → conserve, we adopt the variant pâh-, pâhidan, which is extant in Lâri and Gerâši dialects; cf. Gilaki pâstan, pâssan "to guard, pay attention." In fact the interchange of phonemes h, i and s is not rare in Indo-European languages.

Note 3: Examples of pâyidan "to observe" in astronomy, from Biruni's al-Tafhim (written c. 1029 A.D.)
p. 313: و بپای ارتفاع آ فتاب را.
p. 64: و بپای تا بدایره اندر آید.

Note 4: As indicated above, nepâh- exists in Av. as nipāy- "to watch, protect."

observed
  نپاهیده   
nepâhidé

Fr.: observé   

Pertaining to a value which has been measured, in contrast to one which is computed.

Past participle of → observe.

observer
  نپاهنده، نپاهشگر، نپاهگر   
nepâhandé, nepâhešgar, nepâhgar

Fr.: observateur   

1) Someone or something that observes.
2) Idealized person or piece of equipment, often hypothetical, that measures relevant properties of a physical system.

Agent noun, from → observe + → -or.

observer's cage
  قفس ِ نپاهگر، ~ نپاهنده   
qafas-e nepâhgar, ~ nepâhandé

Fr.: cage d'observateur   

A place located either at the top of the tube of a large telescope from where one observes or at the back of the tube where instruments are attached to the → Cassegrain focus.

observer; → cage.

observing report
  گزارش ِ نپاهش   
gozâreš-e nepâheš

Fr.: rapport d'observations   

A written report provided by a visiting astronomer to the observatory describing how his/her observing run has been carried out.

Observing, noun of → observe; → report.

observing run
  داو ِ نپاهش   
dâv-e nepâheš

Fr.: période d'observation   

A period of telescope time for observations allocated to a science project.

Observing, noun of → observe; → run.

observing slit
  شکاف ِ نپاهش، ~ ِ گنبد   
šekâf-e nepâheš, ~ gonbad

Fr.: fente d'observation   

The long opening in the dome of a telescope through which observation is conducted.

Observing, noun of → observe; → slit.

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