An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 383
  نوریک، نورشناسی   
nurik, nuršenâsi

Fr.: optique   

The branch of physics that deals with the properties and phenomena of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range extending from the ultraviolet (at about 40 nm) to the far-infrared (at 1 mm) and with vision.

Optics, from optic, from M.Fr. optique, from M.L. opticus "of sight or seeing," from Gk. optikos "of or having to do with sight," from optos "seen, visible," from op-, root of opsesthai "be going to see," related to ops "eye," from PIE *okw- "eye; to see" (→ eye); → -ics.

Nurik, from nur, → light, + -ik-ics. Nuršenâsi, from nur, → light, + šenâsi-logy.

behin (#)

Fr.: optimal   

One that minimizes or maximizes some quantity or combination of quantities, such as time, energy, distance, path, etc.

Optimal, adj. of → optimum.

  بهینش، بهین‌سازی   
behineš, behinsâzi

Fr.: optimalisation   

General: The fact of optimizing. The condition of being optimized. → optimize.
Computer science: Improving a system to reduce runtime, bandwidth, memory requirements, or other property of a system.

Verbal noun of → optimize

  بهینیدن، بهین ساختن   
behinidan, behin sâxtan

Fr.: optimiser   

General: To make as effective, perfect, or useful as possible.
Math.: To determine the maximum or minimum values of a specified function by systematically choosing the values of the variables from within an allowed set.

From opti(mum), → optimum, + → -ize.

Behinidan, from behin, → optimum, + -idan infinitive suffix. Behin sâxtan compound verb from behin + sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").


Fr.: optimiseur   

In computer science, a program that optimizes the speed or resource utilization. → optimize.

Agent noun of → optimize.

behiné (#)

Fr.: optimum   

The best or most favorable point, degree, amount, etc. The greatest degree or best result obtained or obtainable under specific conditions.

From L. optimum, neuter singular of optimus "best" (used as a suppletive superlative of bonus "good").

Behiné, from behin superlative of beh "good, fine" (Mid.Pers. veh "better, good;" O.Pers. vahav-, vahu-; Av. vah-, vohu- "good;" cf. Skt. vasu- "good;" Hittite wasu-; Gaulish vesus "good") + -in superlative suffix + nuance suffix.

  اپتش، گزینه   
opteš, goziné (#)

Fr.: optesh   

1) The power or right of choosing.
2) Something that may be or is chosen; choice.
3) The act of choosing (

opt; → -tion.

  اپتشی، گزینه‌ای   
opteši, gozine-yi

Fr.: optesh   

Left to one's choice; not required or mandatory (

option; → -al.

didsanj (#)

Fr.: optomètre   

Any of various instruments for measuring refractive errors of the eye.

From opto- "vision; eye; optis," combining form from Gk. optos "seen, visible," from opsesthai "be going to see," related to ops "eye;" → -meter.

Did, → vision; -sanj, → -meter.

yâ (#)

Fr.: ou   

A → conjunction word used to indicate alternatives.

M.E., from or, adverb "early, before," from Old Norse ār akin to O.E. ær "early."

, from Mid.Pers. ayâb, aviâp "or;" cf. P.Pers. ada, Av. adā, aδa "then."

nârenji (#)

Fr.: orange   

1) A globose berry with a yellowish to reddish-orange rind and a sweet edible pulp.
2) Any of a group of colors that are between red and yellow in hue (

M.E., from O.Fr. orange, orenge, from M.L. pomum de orenge, from It. arancia, originally narancia, alteration of Ar. nâranj, from Pers. nârang, from Skt. narangah "orange tree."

Nârenji, from nârenj "orange," as above.

madâr (#)

Fr.: orbite   

The path followed by a body moving in a gravitational field. For bodies moving under the influence of a centrally directed force, without significant perturbation, the shape of the orbit must be one of the conic section family of curves (circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola).

L. orbita "wheel track, course, circuit."

Madâr, from Ar.

orbit decay
  تباهیِ مدار   
tabâhi-ye madâr

Fr.: déclin d'orbite   

A gradual change in the orbit of a spacecraft caused by aerodynamic drag of a planet's outer atmosphere and other forces.

orbit; → decay.

  ۱) مداری؛ ۲) مدارال   
1) madâri; 2) madârâl

Fr.: 1) orbital; 2) orbitale   

1) Of or relating to an orbit.
2) A wave function that describes the state of an electron with a given energy (n, l, and ml quantum numbers) in an atom (atomic orbital) or in a molecule (molecular orbital).

Orbital, from → orbit + → -al.

orbital angular momentum
  جنباک ِ زاویه‌ای ِ مداری   
jonbâk-e zâviyeyi-ye madâri

Fr.: moment cinétique orbital, ~ angulaire ~   

1) Mechanics: The → angular momentum associated with the motion of a particle about an origin, equal to the cross product of the position vector (r) with the linear momentum (p = mv): L = r x p. Although r and p are constantly changing direction, L is a constant in the absence of any external force on the system. Also known as orbital momentum.
2) Quantum mechanics: The → angular momentum operator associated with the motion of a particle about an origin, equal to the cross product of the position vector with the linear momentum, as opposed to the → spin angular momentum. In quantum mechanics the orbital angular momentum is quantized. Its magnitude is confined to discrete values given by the expression: ħ &radic l(l + 1), where l is the orbital angular momentum quantum number, or azimuthal quantum number, and is limited to positive integral values (l = 0, 1, 2, ...). Moreover, the orientation of the direction of rotation is quantized, as determined by the → magnetic quantum number. Since the electron carries an electric charge, the circulation of electron constitutes a current loop which generates a magnetic moment associated to the orbital angular momentum.

orbital; → angular; → momentum.

orbital axis
  آسه‌ی ِ مداری   
âse-ye madâri

Fr.: axe orbital   

The → perpendicular to the → orbital plane.

orbital; → axis.

orbital debris
  تیفالِ مداری   
tifâl-e madâri

Fr.: débris spatial   

Objects in orbit around Earth created by humans, that no longer serve any useful purpose. They consist of everything from entire spent rocket stages and defunct satellites to explosion fragments, paint flakes, dust, and slag from solid rocket motors, and other small particles. Also called space junk and space waste.

orbital; → debris .

orbital electron
  الکترونِ مداری   
elektron-e madâri (#)

Fr.: électron orbital   

An electron contained within an atom which may be thought of as orbiting around the nucleus, in a manner analogous to the orbit of a planet around the Sun.

orbital; → electron .

orbital element
  بُن‌پارِ مداری   
bonpâr-e madâri

Fr.: élément orbital   

Any of the six parameters needed to specify the → orbit of an object around a → primary body (such as a planet around the Sun or a satellite around the Earth) and give its position at any instant. Two of them define the size and the form of the orbit: → semi-major axis (a) and → eccentricity (e). Three angular values determine the orbit position in space: the → inclination (i) of the object's → orbital plane to the reference plane (such as the → ecliptic), the → longitude of ascending node (Ω), and the → argument of periapsis (ω). And finally the sixth element is the → time of periapsis passage which allows calculating the body's position along the orbit at any instant.

orbital; → element.

orbital energy
  کاروژِ مداری   
kâruž-e madâri

Fr.: énergie orbitale   

The → sum of the → potential energy and the → kinetic energy of an object in → orbit.

orbital; → energy.

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