Fr.: vitesse d'Alfvén
same as → Alfven speed.
Fr.: vitesse angulaire
A measure of the angular displacement per unit time. Of a particle traveling on a circular path or a rotating body, the ratio of the angle traversed to the amount of time it takes to traverse that angle: ω = dθ/dt. For a rigid body, all lines in it rotate through the same angle in the same time, and the angular velocity is the characteristic of the body as a whole. The angular velocity is related to the linear velocity by the equation v = rω, where r is the distance of the point from the rotation axis. → vector angular velocity.
Fr.: vitesse asymptotique
Fr.: vitesse moyenne
The ratio of the displacement (Δx) of a particle, as it moves from point A to point B, to the corresponding time interval: v = Δx/Δt.
Fr.: vitesse de rupture
The velocity of a → rotating star at which the → centrifugal force equals the → gravitational force. Also known as → critical velocity. The simplest expression of the break-up velocity for an OB star, ignoring the → Eddington luminosity, is given by the relation: v = (GM / R)1/2, where M and R are the mass and radius of the star respectively, and G the → gravitational constant. A more realistic expression takes into account not only the → radiation pressure, but also the non-uniformity of the brightness over the stellar surface, as indicated by → von Zeipel theorem. With these conditions, the break-up velocity has a more complicated formula, corresponding to the velocity reached when somewhere on the star the → total gravity becomes zero.
compact high-velocity clouds (CHVCs)
abrhâ-ye hampak-e tondrow
Fr.: nuages compacts à grande vitesse
A population of relatively small (typically < 2°) → high-velocity clouds, which are spatially and kinematically isolated from the gas distribution in their environment. They are thought to be located in the → intergalactic medium of the → Local Group.
Fr.: vitesse critique
Fr.: vitesse de dérive
The average velocity of a charged particle in a plasma in response to an applied electric field.
Fr.: vitesse d'échapement
The speed an object must attain in order to free itself from the gravitational influence of an astronomical body. It is the minimum velocity for the object to enter a parabolic trajectory. The escape velocity is given by: Ve = (2GM/r)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the astronomical body, and r is its radius. The escape velocity of the Earth is about 11.2 km s-1, that of the Moon is 2.4 km s-1, and that of the Sun about 618 km s-1.
Fr.: vitesse de groupe
High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS)
A high-precision echelle spectrograph built for exoplanet findings and installed on the ESO's 3.6m telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile. The first light was achieved in February 2003. HARPS has discovered dozens of exoplanets, making it the most successful planet finder behind the Kepler space observatory. HARPS can detect movements as small as 0.97 m s-1 (3.5 km h-1), with an effective precision of the order of 30 cm s-1, and a → resolving power of 120,000 (Mayor et al., 2003, ESO Messengar 114, 20).
high-velocity clouds (HVCs)
Fr.: nuages à grande vitesse
A population of neutral or partly ionized gas clouds in the → Galactic halo which are seen as high-altitude structures in the atomic hydrogen 21 cm emission at high radial velocities (vLSR> 100 km/sec). They have substantial neutral column densities (> 1019 cm-2) and their metallicities range from 0.1 to about 1.0 times solar. The distances to the majority of them remain unknown. They may represent the continuing infall of matter onto the → Local Group. See also → compact high-velocity clouds.
hypervelocity star (HVS)
Fr.: étoile hypervéloce
A star whose velocity is so great that it will escape the
→ gravitational potential of our
→ Galaxy. Depending on the location and direction of
motion, this criterion typically corresponds to a stellar velocity in
the Galactic → rest frame larger than
400 km s-1, and up to about 1200 km s-1.
The nature of the HVSs spans a wide range of types from
→ OB stars, to metal-poor
→ F-type stars and G/K dwarfs. While there is evidence from many
late-type B HVSs in the → halo
to originate from the Galactic
→ supermassive black hole (SMBH),
other HVSs seem to originate from the → galactic disk.
HVSs can obtain their large velocities from a number of different processes:
Fr.: vitesse instantanée
The velocity of a particle at some one instant of time, or at some one point of its path. It can be defined as the limiting value of the average velocity when the second point is taken closer and closer to the first point.
Keplerian angular velocity
tondâ-ye zâviye-yi-ye Kepleri
Fr.: vitesse angulaire keplérienne
The angular velocity of a point in a circular orbit around a central mass. It is given by: ΩK = (GM/r3)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the gravitating object, and r is the radius of the orbit of the point around the object.
Fr.: vitesse linéaire
The rate of change of the position of an object that is traveling along a straight path. In other words, the velocity of an object when its moving direction is not changing. For a given → angular velocity (ω), the linear velocity v of the particle is directly proportional to the distance of the particle from the center of the circular path: v = ω ×r.
Fr.: vitesse orbitale
The velocity of an object in a given orbit around a gravitating mass. For a perfect circular orbit, the velocity is described by the formula V =√[G(M + m)/r], where G is the gravitational constant, M the mass of the primary gravitating body, m the mass of the orbiting object, and r the radius of the orbit.
Fr.: vitesse parabolique
The speed necessary to form a parabolic orbit around a gravitational center. It is also the minimum speed necessary to escape from the gravitational pull of a body.
Fr.: vitesse particulière
1) Velocity with respect to the Local Standard of Rest.
Fr.: vitesse de phase
The speed at which any fixed phase (individual wave) in a → wave packet travels. It is expressed as vph = ω/k, where ω is the → angular frequency and k the → wave number. See also the → group velocity.