An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1381

Fr.: serveur   

General: Something that serves or is used in serving.
Computers: A computer software application that carries out some task on behalf of users. When users connect to a server, they can access programs, files, and other information from the server. Common servers are Web, mail, and database servers. A single computer can have several different server programs running on it.

Server, agent noun from serve, from M.E. serven, from O.Fr. servir "to serve," from L. servire "to serve," originally "be a slave," related to servus "slave;" cognate with Av. har- "to guard, watch," harətar- "guardian," hāra- "caring for;" Mid./Mod.Pers. zinhâr "protection, security; beware! mind!"

Zâvar "attendant, servant" (Dehxodâ), zâvari "attendance, service" (Dehxodâ), maybe related to Skt. sev- "to attend upon, serve," sevā- "service, attendance, worship," sevati "serves, attends," sevaka- "attendant, servant, follower."

  زاوری، زاورش   
zâvari, zâvareš (#)

Fr.: service   

1) A helpful act by somebody for somebody else as a job, duty, or favor.
2) A system or organization supplying some public demand, e.g. transportation, telephone, health.
3) A facility providing maintenance and repair.

M.E., from O.Fr. servise, from L. servitium "slavery, servitude," from servus "slave," servire "to serve," originally "be a slave;" cognate with Av. har- "to guard, watch," → server.

Zâvari "service" (Dehxodâ) → server.

service observing
  نپاهش با زاوَری، ~ ِ زاورشی   
nepâheš bâ zâvari, ~ zâvareši

Fr.: observation de service   

Observation approved by the selection committee of an observatory which is carried out by the staff astronomers of the observatory.

service; → observation.

  ۱) هنگرد؛ ۲) فرو‌شدن؛ ۳) بشتیدن   
1) hangard; 2) forušodan (#); 3) beštidan

Fr.: 1) ensemble; 2) se coucher; 3) placer, poser, régler   

1) Math.: A finite or infinite collection of objects in which order has no significance. Members of a set are often referred to as elements and the notation a ∈ A is used to denote that a is an element of a set A. The study of sets and their properties is the object of set theory.
2) To pass below the horizon. → moonset; → sunset.
3a) (tr.v.) To put (something or someone) in a particular place.
3b) To adjust a device to a desired position.

1) M.E. sette, from O.Fr. sette "sequence," variant of secte, from M.L. secta "religious group, sect," from L. secta "manner, following, school of thought," literally "something to follow, pathway, course of conduct, school of thought," from sectari "to pursue, accompany," "a way, road," from sequi "to follow," → sequence.
2) M.E. setten, O.E. settan "cause to sit, put in some place, fix firmly;" cf. O.N. setja, O.Fris. setta, Du. zetten, Ger. setzen.

1) Hangard, from Mid.Pers. hangart "whole, complete," hangartik "complete," hangartênitan "to collect, assemble," from *hamkard- literally "created, cut together," from han- variant of ham- "together," cognate with L.L. insimul "at the same time," from in- intensive prefix + simul "together, at the same time" (cf. Gk. homos "same," Mod./Mid.Pers. ham- "together, with," O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-). (→ com-), + gard, variant of kard "created, cut," Mid.Pers. kirrēnītan, kirrēn- "to cut, create," cf. fragard "section, chapter," Av. karət- "to cut," kərəntaiti "cuts, breaks," with fraca- "to create, bring forth," karəta- "knife, dagger" (Mid.Pers. kârt "knife;" Mod.Pers. kârd "knife"), Skt. kart- "to cut, split, break," krti- "sword, knife;" PIE base *(s)kert- "to cut;" Hitt. kartae- "to cut;" Arm. kherthem "to skin;" L. cortex "bark of a tree," corium "skin, leather;" O.H.G. scrinden "to split;" Lith. kertu "to fell, cut down."
2) Forušodan, literally "to descend, go down," from foru- "down, downward; below; beneath" (Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain") + šodan "to go, to pass; to become, to be, to be doing" (Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro").
3) Beštidan, from bešt past stem of Tabari/Mâzandarâni beštan "to place, put, set," from intensive prefix be- + eštan, from heštan "to place, put," → intercalate.

set partition
  پرکش ِ هنگرد   
parkeš-e hangard

Fr.: partition d'un ensemble   

A collection of → nonempty subsets of a set A such that every element of A is in exactly one of the subsets. In other words, A is the → disjoint  → union of these subsets.

partition; → set.

set theory
  نگره‌ی ِ هنگرد   
negare-ye hangard

Fr.: théorie des ensembles   

The branch of mathematics that studies sets. Set theory is closely associated with the branch of mathematics known as logic. It was initiated by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918).

set; → theory.

set up

Fr.: installer   

To install and configure hardware and software on a computer.

Verb of → setup.

  ۱) فروشد؛ ۲) بشته   
1) forušod (#); 2) bešte

Fr.: 1) coucher; 2) configuration, réglage   

1) The act of setting; the appearance of a → celestial body below the → horizon. Opposite of → rising.
2) A change in a software program or hardware device that adjusts it to the user's preference. For example, date and time setting, language setting, display setting, font setting, etc.

set; → -ing.

setting circles
  دایره‌های ِ آماج‌گیری   
dâyerehâ-ye âmaj-giri

Fr.: cercles de pointage   

Two graduated disks attached to the right ascension and declination axis of an equatorial mount used in amateur astronomy that help an observer find astronomical objects in the sky by their equatorial coordinates.

M.E.; O.E. settan "cause to sit, put in some place, fix firmly" (cf. O.N. setja, O.Fris. setta, Du. zetten, Ger. setzen); → circle.

Dâyeré, → circle; âmâj-giri "taking aim," from âmâj "aim, target," → point + giri "taking" (vebal noun of gereftan "to take, seize, hold;" Mid.Pers. griftan, gir- "to take, hold, restrain;" O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize").

  ۱) نیاشاندن؛ ۲) نیاشیدن   
1) niyâšândan; 2) niyâšidan

Fr.: 1) stabiliser, régler, mettre en ordre, calmer; 2) se dépose, retomber, s'apaiser, s'installer   

1) (tr.) To put in order; arrange in a desired state or condition.
2) (intr.) To come to rest or a halt. To become fixed in a particular place, direction, etc. (

M.E. set(t)len, O.E. setlan "to place," derivative of setl "a seat; stall; position, abode;" related to sittan "to sit," from Proto-Germanic *setla- (cognates: Middle Low German, Middle Dutch setel, Dutch zetel, German Sessel, Gothic sitls), from PIE *sedla- (cognates: L. sella "seat, chair," O.C.S. sedlo "saddle," O.E. sadol "saddle"), from root *sed-.

Niyâšidan, from Yidghda niâst- , Munji niôst- "to sit down;" Nâini âš-/âšis- "to become seated;" Baluci ništ, related to nešastan "to sit down," → sit (see also → reside); ultimately from Proto-Ir. *had- "to sit, be setaed."

settled disk
  گرده‌ی ِ نیاشیده   
gerde-ye niyâšidé

Fr.: disque stabilisé   

A → galactic disk that has undergone → disk settling.

settle; → disk.


Fr.: stabilisation; dépose   

The act of a person or thing that settles. → disk settling, → dust settling.

settle; → -ing.


Fr.: installation   

1) The process of connecting and preparing a software program, hardware device, or computer to function properly. Setup is a file commonly called "setup.exe" that is executed to begin installing a software program onto a computer. See also → set up.
2) Equipment designed for a particular purpose; an apparatus.
3) The fashion in which something is organized or arranged.

set; → up.

Barbešt, from prefix bar-, → on-.

haft (#)

Fr.: sept   

A → cardinal number between → six and → eight.

From M.E. seoven(e), seofne, seven, O.E. seofon, cognate with M.Du. seven, Du. zeven, O.H.G. sibun, Ger. sieben, related to Pers. haft, as below, from PIE *septm "seven."

Haft, from Mid.Pers. haft, Av. hapta Skt. sapta, Gk. hepta, L. septem.

šast-šasti (#)

Fr.: sexagésimal   

Relating to, or based on, the number 60.

From M.L. sexagesimalis, from L. sexagesimus "sixtieth," from sexaginta "sixty."

Šast-šasti, from Šast, → sixty.

sexagesimal system
  راژمان ِ شست-شستی   
râžmân-e šast-šasti

Fr.: système sexagésimal   

A number system whose base is 60. It originated with the ancient Sumerians around 2000 B.C., was transmitted to the Babylonians, and is still used in modified form for measuring time, angles, and geographic coordinates.

sexagesimal; → system.


Fr.: Sextant   

The Sextant. An inconspicuous constellation located on the celestial equator at 10h 20m, 0° declination. Its brightest star, Alpha Sextantis is of 4th magnitude. It was introduced in the 17th century by Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Abbreviation: Sex; genitive: Sextantis.

The name is L. for → sextant, an instrument that Hevelius made frequent use of in his observations.


Fr.: sextant   

An instrument used mainly in nautical astronomy to determine the angular distances of celestial bodies above the horizon. The sextant consists of a 60° graduated arc, or limb, a small telescope, and two mirrors. Only half of one of the mirrors, the horizon glass, is silvered and, like the telescope, it is fastened to the frame supporting the limb. The other mirror, the index mirror, moves with an index arm pivoted at the center of the arc. The index arm is equipped with a → vernier which moves along the limb. An object in direction S can be observed in the telescope through the un-silvered portion of the horizon glass. By moving the index arm, the second object S' is made to coincide with S in the telescope. According to the law of reflection, the angle between S and S' is double the angle between the mirrors. The angular distance between the objects can therefore be obtained from the measurement of angles between the planes of the mirrors.

From Mod.L. sextans, from L. sextans "a sixth," from sexsix.

Šešakân, from šešak "a sixth," from šeš, → six + -ak, contraction of yak "one," (Mid.Pers. êwak; Proto-Iranian *aiua-ka-; O.Pers. aiva- "one, alone;" Av. aēuua- "one, alone" (cf. Skt. éka- "one, alone, single;" Gk. oios "alone, lonely;" L. unus "one;" E. one) + -ân nuance suffix.


Fr.: sextet   

Any group or set of six. → Seyfert's sextet.

From Latinized sestet, from It. sestetto, diminutive of sesto "sixth," from L. sextus "sixth," from sex, → six.

Šeštâyé, from šeš, → six, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part" (Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part") + -(y)é nuance suffix.


Fr.: sextuplet   

A group or combination of six objects, such as the → Mizar and the → Castor star systems.

From sextuple, from L. sext(us) "sixth," → six, + et

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