An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1381

Fr.: échantillonnage   

The act, process, or technique of selecting a number of cases from all the cases in a particular population.

sample + → -ing.

Nemunân-giri, literally "taking sample," from nemunânsample + giri verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize, hold;" Mid.Pers. griftan, gir- "to take, hold, restrain;" O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize."

sampling bias
  ورک ِ نمونان‌گیری   
varak-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: biais de l'échantillonnage   

That part of the difference between the expected value of the sample estimator and the true value of the characteristic which results from the sampling procedure, the estimating procedure, or their combination.

sampling; → bias.

sampling error
  ایرنگ ِ نمونان‌گیری   
irang-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: erreur d'échantillonnage   

That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a sample of values is observed; as distinct from errors due to imperfect selection, bias in response or estimation, errors of observation and recording, etc.

sampling; → error.

sampling theorem
  فربین ِ نمونان‌گیری   
farbin-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage   

Same as → Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem.

sampling; → theorem.

sampling unit
  یکای ِ نمونان‌گیری   
yekâ-ye nemunân-giri

Fr.: unité d'échantillonnage   

One of the units into which an aggregate is divided for the purpose of sampling, each unit being regarded as individual and indivisible when the selection is made.

sampling; → unit.

mâsé (#)

Fr.: sable   

Hard granular powder, consisting of fine grains of rock or minerals, usually quartz fragments, found on beaches, in deserts, and in soil.

O.E. sand; cf. O.N. sandr, O.Fris. sond, M.Du. sant, Ger. Sand; PIE base *samatha- (cf. Gk. psammos "sand," L. sabulum).

Mâsé "sand," of unknown origin.

mâse-sang (#)

Fr.: grès   

Variously colored → sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-like quartz grains cemented by calcite, clay, or iron oxide. The sand accumulated originally underwater in shallow seas or lakes, or on the ground along shorelines or in desert regions.

sand; → stone.

mâse-bâd (#)

Fr.: tempête de sable   

A strong wind carrying sand through the air.

sand; → storm.

Sanduleak catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ سندیولیک   
kâtâlog-e Sanduleak

Fr.: catalogue de Sanduleak   

A deep → objective prism survey of the → Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Curtis Schmidt telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile. A total of 1272 stars, generally brighter than → photographic magnitude ~ 14, are listed in the catalog as proven or probable LMC members. The stars are identified on the charts in the LMC Atlas of Hodge & Wright (1967).

By Nicholas Sanduleak (1933-1990), American astronomer, published in 1970 as Contribution No. 89 of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory; → catalog.

sanculottide (#)

Fr.: sans-culottide   

One of the 5 or 6 → epagomenal days added to the 12 months of 30 days each in the → French Republican Calendar. Sansculottides began on September 17 or 18 and approximately ended on the → autumnal equinox, on September 22 or 23 of the → Gregorian calendar. These days were kept as festivals of Virtue, Genius, Labor, Opinion, and Rewards. There was a sixth Sanculottide, called Revolution, in → leap years.

From Fr. sans-culotte, literally "without knee breeches," a revolutionary of the lower class in the French revolution. The appellation was originally a term of contempt applied by the aristocrats but later was adopted as a popular name by the French revolutionaries. It refers to the fashionable culottes (silk knee breeches) of the aristocrats as distinguished from the working class sans-culottes, who traditionally wore pantalons (long trousers).

SAO Star Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ ستاره‌ای ِ SAO   
kâtâlog-e setâre-yi-ye SAO

Fr.: catalogue SAO   

A general whole-sky catalog compiled by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory which results from the combination of several earlier catalogs. The compilation gives positions and proper motions for 258,997 stars, of which 8,712 are double and 499 variable, with an average distribution of 6 stars per square degree. The star positions have an average standard deviation of 0''.2 at their original epochs (0''.5 at epoch 1963.5). The equinox is 1950.0 and the system that of the FK4.

SAO acrynome of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; → star; → catalog.

Sâros (#)

Fr.: saros   

The period of 223 → synodic month, equaling 6585.32 days or 18 years, 11.33 days, after which the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry. When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and at the same time of year. Thus, the Saros is a useful tool for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 or 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses (F. Espenak, NASA).

Gk. saros, from Akkadian shār, Sumerian shar "multitude, large number." The ancient astronomers knew the Saros cycle, but they did not use the term Saros. In the Almagest, Ptolemy refers to the Saros as the "periodic time" (periodikos chronos) and gives it the following properties: 223 → synodic months = 239 → anomalistic months = 242 → draconistic months = 6,585 1/3 days = 241 revolutions in longitude plus 10 2/3 degrees. Edmund Halley seems to have been the first to apply this term to an eclipse cycle, in 1691.

  ۱) ماهواره؛ ۲) بنده‌وار   
1) mâhvâré; 2) bandevâr

Fr.: satellite   

1) A body that revolves around a planet; a moon. → Galilean satellite; → regular satellite; → irregular satellite.
2) Something that depends on, accompanies, or serves something else. → satellite galaxy; → satellite line.

From M.Fr. satellite, from L. satellitem "attendant."

1) Mâhvâré, from mâh, → moon, + -vâré, -vâr similarity suffix.
2) Bandevâr, from bandé "bound, fastened; (devoted) servant, domestic;" Mid.Pers. bandag, from bastan, band-, vastan "to bind, shut" (O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

satellite galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بنده‌وار   
kahkešân-e bandevâr

Fr.: galaxie satellite   

A galaxy that orbits a larger one due to gravitational attraction. The Milky Way has at least ten satellite galaxies: the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Carina Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, Ursa Major I, and → Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.

satellite; → galaxy.

satellite line
  خط ِ بنده‌وار   
xatt-e bandevâr

Fr.: raie satellite   

Radio astro.: Of an OH source, which emits at 1665 and 1667 MHz as the main frequencies, one of the lines arising from transitions at 1612 and 1730 MHz.

satellite; → line.


Fr.: saturer   

1) Chem.: To add as much of a liquid, solid, or gas to a solution as it can absorb at a given temperature.
2) To fill something with so many things that no more can be added.

From L. saturatus, p.p. of saturare "to fill full, sate, drench," from satur "sated, full," from PIE base *sā- "to satisfy."

Anjâlidan "to saturate, to fill" (Dehxodâ, Steingass), ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ham-gar-, from *ham- "together," denoting "much, many," → syn-, + *gar- "to soak, moisten;" cf. Sogdian wγyr- "to soak, steep," from *aua-gar-, from which derives Pers. âqâridan, âqeštan "to steep, soak; mix."


Fr.: saturé   

1) Chem.: The qualifier of a solution that has as much solute as possible.
2) (Of colors) Of maximum chroma or purity.

Past participle of → saturate (v..

saturated air
  هوای ِ انجالیده   
havâ-ye anjâlidé

Fr.: air saturé   

Air that contains the maximum amount of → water vapor that is possible at the given → temperature and → pressure, i.e. air in which the → relative humidity is 100%.

saturated; → air.

saturated liquid
  آوه‌ی ِ انجالیده   
âve-ye anjâlidé

Fr.: liquide saturé   

A liquid whose temperature and pressure are such that any decrease in pressure without change in temperature causes it to boil.

saturate; → liquid.

saturated solution
  لویش ِ انجالیده   
luyeš-e anjâlidé

Fr.: solution saturée   

A solution which can exist in equilibrium with excess of solute. The saturation concentration is a function of the temperature.

saturate; → solution.

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