An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1381

Fr.: synopsis, résumé, précis   

A brief and condensed summary giving the major points and a general view of a topic.

L.L. synopsis "a synopsis," from Gk. synopsis "general view," from a stem of synoran "to see altogether, all at once," from → syn- "together" + horan "to see, view."

Hanvin, from han- variant of ham-, → syn- + vin variant bin present stem of didan "to see," → phenomenon.


Fr.: synoptique   

In general, pertaining to or affording an overall view.

M.L. synopticus, from Gk. synoptikos, from synop-, → synopsis, + -tikos.

synoptic map
  نقشه‌ی ِ هنوینی   
naqše-ye hanvini

Fr.: carte synoptique   

1) Sun: A map that displays positions of certain events (e.g., → sunspots, → faculae, → filaments, etc.) observed during one solar rotation.
2) Meteorology: The use of data obtained simultaneously over a wide area for the purpose of presenting a comprehensive and nearly instantaneous picture of the state of the atmosphere.

synoptic; → map.


Fr.: syntactique   

The study of the grammatical relationships among signs, independently of their meaning (→ semantics. See also → syntax.

syntax; → -ics.


Fr.: syntaxe   

1) Linguistics: The branch of → semiotics dealing with the ways in which words are arranged to show connections within the sentence.
2) Logic: The study of how signs are combined to form constituents regardless of any interpretation or meaning given to them.
3) Informatics: The general set of rules and structural patterns governing the order of words and symbols for issuing commands and writing codes in a programming language.

From Fr. syntaxe, from L.L. syntaxis, from Gk. syntaxis "a putting together or in order, arrangement," from syntassein "to put in order," from → syn- "together" + tassein "to arrange;" PIE base *tāg- "to put in order."

Amrâž, from am-, variant of ham-, → syn-, + râž from Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," rasman- "the lines or files of the army," razan "rule, order;" cf. raj, raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight," râst "right, true; just, upright, straight," → system.


Fr.: synthèse   

The combining of the constituent elements of separate materials or abstract entities into a single or unified entity; opposite of → analysis. → aperture synthesis; → nucleosynthesis.
Chemistry: The forming or building of a more complex substance or compound from elements or simpler compounds.
Philo.: The combination or reconciliation of opposed notions.

From L. synthesis "collection, set," from Gk. synthesis "composition," from syntithenai "put together, combine," from → syn- "together" + tithenai "to put, place," from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do," cf. Pers. dâdan "to give," as below.

Handâyeš, from han-, variant ham- "together," → syn- + O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, put," dadāiti "he gives;" Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give, put" (cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do") + -y- epenthetic vowel + -eš verbal noun suffix, → synthesize.


Fr.: synthétiser   

To form a material or abstract entity by combining parts or elements; opposite of → analysis.
Chemistry: To combine (constituent elements) into a single or unified entity.

From → synthesis + → -ize.

Handâyidan, verbal form of handâyeš, → synthesis.


Fr.: synthétiseur   

A person or thing that synthesizes.

Agent noun from → synthesize.

  هندایی، هندایشی   
handâyi, handâyeši

Fr.: synthétique   

1) Of, pertaining to, proceeding by, or involving synthesis; opposed to analytic.
2) Noting or pertaining to compounds formed through a chemical process by human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin.

Adj. from synthesize.

synthetic division
  بخش ِ هندایشی   
baxš-e handâyeši

Fr.: division synthétique   

A method of dividing a polynomial in the special case of dividing by a linear factor. Synthetic division allows one to do long division problems much quicker. It is related to the → Ruffini-Horner method.

synthetic; → division.

synthetic language
  زبان ِ هندایشی   
zabân-e handâyeši

Fr.: langue synthétique   

A language in which the phrase meaning is determined by case endings of individual words and not by the relation between the words. Old English was a highly synthetic language. Compare with → analytic language.

synthetic; → language.

Syrtis Major
  سیرتیس مایور   
Sirtis Mâyor

Fr.: Syrtis Major   

A dark triangular plateau near the Martian equator, located in the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands of Mars. Syrtis Major is centered near at 8.4°N 69.5°E, extends some 1,500 km north from the planet's equator, and spans 1,000 from west to east.

From the classical Roman name Syrtis maior "the Gulf of Sidra" on the coast of Cyrenaica (today Libya)


Fr.: système   

1a) An assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole.
1b) An ordered and comprehensive assemblage of facts, principles, doctrines, or the like in a particular field of knowledge or thought (
2) Physics: An aggregate composed of physical bodies which we isolate, in our mind, from the region external to it in order to analyze physical situations. Everything outside the system which has a direct bearing on its behavior is called the → environment.
3) Astro.: An entity composed of a number of astronomical objects associated and acting together according to certain natural laws.
4) Computers: A system consisting of components (a combination of the hardware, software, and firmware) which are connected together in order to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.

From L.L. systema "an arrangement, a whole consisting of several parts," from Gk. systema "arrangement, organized whole," from sy-, variant of syn- "together" + ste- variant stem of histanai "to cause to stand" (from PIE base *sta- "to stand;" cf. Pers. ist, istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand") + -ma nominal suffix denoting result of action.

Râžmân, from raž, from Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," rasman- "the lines or files of the army," razan "rule, order" (variants raj, râž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"), related to râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct," rây-, râyênitan "to arrange;" Sogdian rəšt "right;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -mân verbal noun suffix used with present and past stems, as in zâymân, câymân, sâxtemân, goftemân.

system manager
  گنارگر ِ راژمان   
gonârgar-e râžmân

Fr.: administrateur de système   

A person in charge of the configuration and administration of a multi-user computer system inside a network.

system; → manager.

system noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ راژمان   
nufe-ye râžmân

Fr.: bruit de système   

The noise in a radio telescope, composed of the receiver noise and the sky noise.

system; → noise.


Fr.: systématique   

Having, showing, or involving a system, method, or plan.

L.L., from Gk. systematikos; → system; → -ic.

Râžmânvâr, râžmânmand, from râžmân, → system, + -mand suffix of possession.

systematic error
  ایرنگ ِ راژمان‌مند   
irang-e râžmânmand

Fr.: erreur systématique   

The error that is constant in a series of repetitions of the same experiment or observation. Usually, systematic error is defined as the expected value of the overall error. opposite of → random error.

systematic; → error.


Fr.: systématique, taxinomie   

Biology: The science that deals with the systematic naming and classification of all kinds of organisms.

From → systematic + → -ics.


Fr.: systémique   

Relating to or affecting a system as a whole.

system; → -ic.

systems theory
  نگره‌ی ِ راژمان   
negare-ye râžmân

Fr.: théorie des systèmes   

An interdisciplinary field of science which deals with the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science, and studies complex parts of reality as systems.

system; → theory.

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