An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig SIM sim Sin ske sle Smi SNR sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz > >>

Number of Results: 1381

Fr.: sous-type   

A special type being part of a more general type, e.g. subtype 2 among G type stars. → subclass.

sub-; → type.


Fr.: réussir   

1) To happen or terminate according to desire; turn out successfully; have the desired result.
2) To accomplish what is attempted or intended (

M.E. succeden, from O.Fr. succeder "to follow on" and directly from L. succedere "come after, follow after; go near to; come under; take the place of," also "go from under, mount up, ascend," hence "get on well, prosper, be victorious," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move" → process.

Kâmyâbidan, back formation from kâmyâbi, → success.

  کامیابی، کامیافت   
kâmyâbi (#), kâmyâft

Fr.: succès   

1) The favorable or prosperous termination of attempts or endeavors; the accomplishment of one's goals.
2) A performance or achievement that is marked by success, as by the attainment of honors (

From L. successus "an advance, a coming up; a good result, happy outcome," noun use of p.p. of succedere "come after," from suc-, → sub-, + ceder "to go, move," → process.

Kâmyâbi, literally "acquiring, obtaining, finding one's desire, wish," from kâm "desire, wish," → despite, + yâbi, from yâftan "to obtain, find," → interpolation.

kâmyâb (#)

Fr.: réussi, couronné de succès   

1) Achieving or having achieved success.
2) Resulting in or attended with success.

success + -ful a suffix meaning "full of, characterized by."

payâpey (#)

Fr.: successif   

Following in order or in uninterrupted sequence; e.g. → method of successive approximations.

M.E. from M.L. successivus, from successus, p.p. of succedere "come after, go near to," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move."

Peyâpey "successive," from pey "after; step," related to "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây, Av. pad-, Skt. pat, Gk. pos, gen. podos, L. pes, gen. pedis, P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + -â- epenthetic vowel + pey, as explained.

sukroz (#)

Fr.: sucrose   

The table sugar with chemical formula C12H22O11, which is a particular type of → sugar compounds.

From → sugar + -ose a suffix borrowed from L. denoting "full of, given to."

basandegi (#)

Fr.: suffisance   

1) The state or fact of being sufficient.
2) A sufficient number or amount.

sufficient + -cy a suffix used to form abstract nouns.

basandé (#)

Fr.: suffisant   

1) Adequate for the purpose; enough.
2) Logic, Math.: A condition which, if true, guarantees that a result is also true. However, the result may also be true if the condition is not met. → if and only if.

M.E., from O.Fr. sufficient, from L. sufficiens, pr.p. of sufficere "supply, suffice," from sub "up to," → sub-, + root of facere "to make," → fact.

Basandé "sufficient, complete, worthy," from *basidan, from bas "many, much," → multi-.

pasvand (#)

Fr.: suffixe   

An → affix that follows the base to which it is added.

N.L. from suffixus, p.p. of suffigere "to attach on top of," from suf-, variant of → sub- + figere "fasten."

Pasvand, from pas- "after, behind," → back-, + vand, → affix.

šekar (#)

Fr.: sucre   

1) A family of simple, often sweet, compounds consisting of → carbon, → hydrogen, and → oxygen obtained particularly from sugarcane and sugar beets. The sugar family includes glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, maltose, lactose, and galactose. Sugar molecules have been detected in → interstellar medium  → molecular clouds.
2) Specifically, → sucrose.

M.E. sugre, sucre, from O.Fr. sucre, from M.L. succarum, from Ar. sukkar, from Pers. shakar, from Skt. šárkarā- "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel."

Šekar, Mid.Pers. šakar, ultimately from Skt. šárkarā-, as above.

  پیشنهادن، پیشنهاد کردن   
pišnehâdan (#), pišnehâd kardan (#)

Fr.: suggérer   

To mention or introduce (an idea, proposition, plan, etc.) for consideration or possible action: The architect suggested that the building be restored (

From L. suggestus, p.p. of suggerere "to bring under, bring up, lay beneath; afford, supply," from → sub- + gerere "to bring, carry," of unknown origin.

From pišnehâd, from piš "before," → pre-, + nehâd, past stem of nehâdan "to place, put," → position.

pišnehâd (#)

Fr.: suggestion   

1) The act of suggesting.
2) The state of being suggested.
3) Something suggested, as a piece of advice (

Verbal noun of → suggest.

gugerd (#)

Fr.: soufre   

Also sulphur, a nonmetallic chemical element; symbol S. Atomic number 16; atomic weight 32.06; melting point 112.8°C (rhombic), 119.0°C (monoclinic), about 120°C (amorphous); boiling point 444.674°C; specific gravity at 20°C, 2.07.

M.E. sulphur, from L. sulpur, sulphur, sulfur "brimstone;" maybe from Skt. sulveri "eneny of copper," as copper loses all its properties when heated with sulfur. It was known from prehistoric times. In 1809, the French chemists, Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thenard proved the elemental nature of sulfur.

Gugerd, from Mid.Pers. gôgird "sulfur," gôgirdômand "sulfurous."

  ۱) بزاو؛ ۲) بزاویدن   
1) bazâv; 2) bazâvidan

Fr.: 1) somme; 2) sommer   

1a) Math.: The number or quantity that is the result of adding two or more numbers or quantities.
1b) A particular amount or total, especially of money.
2a) To combine into an aggregate or total (often followed by up).
2b) To ascertain the sum of, as by addition (

M.E. summe, from O.Fr. summe, from L. summa "total number, whole, essence, gist," noun use of feminine of summus "highest," superlative of superus, → super-.

Bazâv, from Mid.Pers. abzây-, abzudan (Mod.Pers. afzâ-, afzudan) "to increase;" Parthian abigâw- "to increase;" Sogd. β(ə)žāw "to grow, increase;" O.Pers. abiyajāv- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gu- "to increase;" Khotanese gvāna- "growth;" Skt. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens").


Fr.: résumer   

To make a summary of; state or express in a concise form.

summary + → -ize.


Fr.: résumé   

1) A brief account giving the main points of something.
2) Covering the main points; comprehensive.

From L. summarium "an epitome, abstract, summary," from summa "totality, gist," → sum, + → -ary.

Bazâvak, from bazâv, present stem of bazâvidan, → sum, + -ak relation suffix.

tâbestân (#)

Fr.: été   

The season that starts when the Sun, during its apparent yearly motion, attains the celestial longitude 90 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and 270 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The current length of the summer season, around the epoch 2000, is 93.65 days.

M.E. sumer, from O.E. sumor (cf. O.S., O.N., O.H.G. sumar, O.Fris. sumur, M.Du. somer, Du. zomer, Ger. Sommer), from PIE base *sem- "summer;" cf. Av. ham- "summer;" Mid.Pers. hāin "summer;" Skt. sámā- "half-year, season;" Arm. am "year," amarn "summer;" O.Ir. sam "summer;" O.Welsh ham "summer."

From Mid.Pers. tâpistân, ultimately from Proto-Iranain *tap-stā- "hot, heat season, time, place." The first component *tap- "to shine, radiate;" cf. Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftban "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
The second component *stā- "to stand; to set; to place;" a suffix of "place, land, country" and in rare cases "time;" examples: لرستان "Lorestân;" کردستان "Kurdestân;" افغانستان "Afghanistan;" ترکستان "Turkistan;" پاکستان "Pakistan;" انگلستان "England;" لهستان "Poland;" کوهستان "kuhestân = mountaneous region, highland;" تابستان "summer;" زمستان "winter." From Mid.Pers. -stân, -istân. Examples: gôstân (گاوستان) "cowshed;" šapistân (شبستان) "dormitory;" tâpistân "summer;" zamistân "winter." From O.Pers. stāna- "place;" Av. stāna-, as in gaostāna- (Mid.Pers. gôstân, as above) "cowshed;" from Proto-Iranian *stāna-. This suffix is related to O.Pers./Av. base sta- "to stand;" Mod.Pers. istâdan (ایستادن) "to stand;" cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand," sthāna- "standing;" Gk. histemi "to put, place," stasis "standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Goth. standan; O.H.G. stantan; O.E. standan; E. stand; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

summer solstice
  خوریستان ِ تابستانی   
xoristân-e tâbestâni

Fr.: solstice d'été   

The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its highest → declination of 23°26' (or 23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly toward the Sun, on 21 or 22 June. During the northern solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees north, known as the → tropic of Cancer. The summer solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive summer solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → winter solstice in the southern hemisphere.

summer; → solstice.

summer triangle
  سه‌بر ِ تابستانی   
sebar-e tâbestâni

Fr.: triangle d'été   

The triangular shape formed by the three bright stars → Altair, → Deneb, and → Vega on the northern hemisphere's → celestial sphere, particularly visible during the summer months.

summer; → triangle.

xoršid (#)

Fr.: Soleil   

The star that governs the solar system. It is a yellow main-sequence star of spectral type G2, shines with apparent magnitude -26.74, and has an absolute magnitude of +4.83. The Sun is 4.6 billion years old and lies 27,000 light-years from the Galactic center.

O.E. sunne; cf. O.N., O.S., O.H.G. sunna, M.Du. sonne, Du. zon, Ger. Sonne, Goth. sunno; cognate with Pers. xor, hur, as below.

Xoršid "sun," originally "sunlight," from xor "sun," variant hur; Mid.Pers. xwar "sun;" Av. hū-, hvar- "sun;" cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, cognate with E. sun, as above; PIE base *sawel- "sun" + šid "light, sunlight;" from Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent."

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig SIM sim Sin ske sle Smi SNR sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz > >>