An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1381
soft iron
  آهن ِ نرم   
âhan-e narm

Fr.: fer doux   

Iron that has a low carbon content, in contrast to → steel. Because it is easily magnetized and demagnetized, it is used to make the cores of → solenoids and other electrical equipment.

soft; → iron.

soft palate
narmkâm (#)

Fr.: voile du palais, palais mou, velum   

The back, muscular (not bony) part of the roof of the → mouth in front of the → pharynx.

soft; → palate.

Soft X-ray Transient (SXT)
  گذرای ِ پرتو ِ ایکس ِ نرم   
gozarâ-ye partow-e X-e narm


An → X-ray binary system that has a long period of → quiescence interrupted by → outbursts of low-energy → soft X-rays. Alternatively known as X-ray novae, the majority (~ 75%) of SXTs contain a → black hole and a low-mass → main sequence  → companion star in orbit around one another. It is thought that SXTs arise in a similar manner to → dwarf novae, through instabilities in the → accretion disk around the → compact object (→ disk instability model).

soft; → X-ray; → transient..

soft X-rays
  پرتوهای ِ ایکس ِ نرم   
partowhâ-ye iks-e narm

Fr.: rayons X mous   

X-ray photons with energies between about 0.1 to 10 keV. → hard X-rays.

soft; → X-rays.

narm-afzâr (#)

Fr.: logiciel   

A general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures, and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. → hardware.

soft + ware, from M.E., from O.E. waru, from P.Gmc. *waro (cf. Swed. vara, Dan. vare, M.Du. were, Du. waar, Ger. Ware "goods").

Narm, → soft + afzâr "instrument, means, tool," from Mid.Pers. afzâr, abzâr, awzâr "instrument, means," Proto-Iranian *abi-cāra- or *upa-cāra-, from cāra-, cf. Av. cārā- "instrument, device, means" (Mid.Pers. câr, cârag "means, remedy;" loaned into Arm. aucar, aucan "instrument, remedy;" Mod.Pers. câré "remedy, cure, help"), from kar- "to do, make, build;" kərənaoiti "he makes" (Pers. kardan, kard- "to do, to make"); cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

software architecture
  مهرازیک ِ نرم‌افزار   
mehrâzik-e narm-afzâr

Fr.: architecture de logiciel   

The overall structure of a software system consisting of mutually dependent components that create a logical whole.

software; → architecture.

xâk (#)

Fr.: terre, sol   

All loose, unconsolidated earth and organic materials above bedrock that support plant growth.

M.E. soile, O.Fr. soil "piece of ground, place," from L. solium "seat," meaning confused with that of L. solum "soil, ground."

Xâk, from Mid.Pers. xâk "earth, dust," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *āika-, from *āi- "earth, soil," cf. Av. āi- "earth, soil," Gk. aia "earth, land," + suffix -ka. The initial x- is a prothesis, as in xâya "egg" (Gershevitch 1962).


Fr.: jour solaire martien   

The solar day on Mars, which has a mean period of 24 hours 39 minutes 35.244 seconds (based on SI units), about 2.7% longer than Earth's solar day. The Martian sidereal day, as measured with respect to the fixed stars, is 24h 37m 22.663s, as compared with 23h 56m 04.0905s for Earth.

Sol, from L. sol "sun," cognate with Pers. hur, → Sun.

xoršidi (#)

Fr.: solaire   

Of or pertaining to the Sun.

Adjective from L. sol; → Sun.

solar abundance
  فراوانی ِ خورشیدی   
farâvâni-ye xoršidi

Fr.: abondance solaire   

solar photospheric abundance, → solar system abundance.

solar; → abundance.

solar activity
  ژیرندگی ِ خورشید   
žirandegi-ye xoršid

Fr.: activité solaire   

The general term for all forms of short-lived phenomena on the Sun, including → solar flares, → sunspots, → prominences, etc., indicating that the Sun is an active star.

solar; → activity.

solar activity cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ ژیرندگی ِ خورشید   
carxe-ye žirandegi-ye xoršid

Fr.: cycle d'activité solaire   

Same as the → solar cycle.

solar activity; → cycle.

solar analog
  آناگوی ِ خورشید   
ânâgu-ye xoršid

Fr.: analogue du soleil   

A member of a class of unevolved or slightly evolved → Population I disk stars with an → effective temperature, degree of evolution, → metallicity, and kinematic property not very different from those of the Sun. See also → solar-like star; → solar twin.

solar; → analogue.

solar antapex
  پادچکاد خورشیدی   
pâdcakâd-e xoršidi

Fr.: antiapex solaire   

The apparent direction (in the constellation → Columbia) away from which the Sun is moving in its orbit around the center of the Galaxy. → solar apex.

solar; → antapex.

solar apex
  چکاد ِ خورشیدی   
cakâd-e xoršidi

Fr.: apex solaire   

The point on the celestial sphere toward which the Sun is apparently moving relative to the → local standard of rest. Its position, in the constellation → Hercules, is approximately R.A. 18h, Dec. +30°, close to the star → Vega. The velocity of this motion is estimated to be about 19.4 km/sec (about 4. AU/year). As a result of this motion, stars seem to be converging toward a point in the opposite direction, the → solar antapex.

solar; → apex.

solar axial tilt
  گرای ِ آسه‌ی ِ خورشید   
gerâ-ye âse-ye xoršid

Fr.: inclinaison de l'axe du Soleil   

The angle between the Sun's → rotation axis and perpendicular to the → ecliptic plane. In other words, the inclination of the Sun's → equator with respect to the → ecliptic plane. It is 7.25 degrees.

solar; → axial; → tilt.

solar calendar
  گاهشمار ِ خورشیدی   
gâhšomâr-e xoršidi (#)

Fr.: calendrier solaire   

A calendar based on the apparent yearly motion of the Sun on the → celestial sphere. The year is usually reckoned with respect to the → vernal equinox, approximately for example in the case of the → Gregorian calendar and accurately in the case of the → Iranian calendar.

solar; → calendar.

solar constant
  پایای ِ خورشیدی   
pâypa-ye xoršidi (#)

Fr.: constante solaire   

The amount of solar radiation in all wavelengths received per unit of time per unit of area on a theoretical surface perpendicular to the Sun's rays and at Earth's mean distance from the Sun. Its mean value is 1367.7 W m-2 or 1.37 × 106 erg sec-1 cm-2. In other words, the solar constant is the mean → solar irradiance on the outer atmosphere when the Sun and Earth are spaced at 1 → astronomical unit. See also: → solar luminosity.

solar; → constant.

solar corona
  هورتاج، تاج ِ خورشیدی   
hurtâj, tâj-e xoršid (#)

Fr.: couronne solaire   

The outermost atmosphere of the Sun immediately above the → chromosphere, which can be seen during a total solar eclipse. It consists of hot (1-2 × 106 K), extremely tenuous gas (about 10-16 g cm-3) extending for millions of kilometer from the Sun's surface.

solar; → corona.

solar cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ خورشیدی   
carxe-ye xoršidi (#)

Fr.: cycle solaire   

The periodic variation in frequency or number of solar active events (→ sunspots, → prominences, → flares, and other solar activity) occurring with an interval of about 11 years. The solar cycle was discovered in 1843 by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875), a German apothecary and amateur astronomer, who after 17 years of observations noticed a periodic variation in the average number of sunspots seen from year to year on the solar disk. Solar cycle numbering goes back to the 18-th century, when the Cycle 1 peak occurred in 1760. Cycle 23 peaked in 2000, and the following Cycle 24 will reach its maximum in 2013.

solar; → cycle.

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