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simultaneity hamzamâni (#) Fr.: simultanéité The property of events occurring → simultaneously. Noun from → simultaneous; → -ity. |
simultaneous hamzamân (#) Fr.: simultané 1) General: Happening, existing, or operating at the same time. From L.L. simultaneus, from L. simul "at the same time" + -taneous, abstracted from → spontaneous. |
sine sinus (#) Fr.: sinus In trigonometry, the function of an acute angle of a right triangle represented by the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse. Greek mathematicians were not aware of the advantages of sine and instead used chord.
The invention of this function is a great Indian contribution. It seems that Aryabhata (c. AD 500)
was the first who coined a term in Skt. for this concept: árdha-jiyā-
"half chord," which was later shortened to
jiyā- "chord." This Skt. word was subsequently loaned in Ar. and corrupted to
jayb ( Sinus loanword from Fr., as above. |
sine wave mowj-e sinusi (#) Fr.: onde sinusoïdale A periodic oscillation that is defined by the function y = sin x. |
single tak, taktâ Fr.: seul, isolé Only one in number; one only; unique; sole. M.E., from O.Fr. sengle "being one, separate," from L. singulus "one, individual, separate," from sim- (stem of simplus) + diminutive suffix, → -ule. Tak"single, alone," related to tâq "odd, single," tâ, tâh "piece, part; fold, plait, ply;" Mid.Pers. tak "single," tâg, tâk, tâi "unit, piece." |
single scattering parâkaneš-e tak Fr.: diffusion unique, ~ simple A type of scattering where photons are scattered only once. Single scattering dominates in → optically thin media, since photons have a high probability of exiting the medium (e.g., a thin cloud) before being scattered again. → single; → scattering. |
single-dish observation nepâhešè-e tak-jâm Fr.: observation avec antenne uinique A radio astronomical observation which uses only one antenna, in contrast to interferometric observations. → single; → dish; → observation. |
single-lined binary dorin-e tak-xatté Fr.: binaire à une seule raie A → spectroscopic binary in which only one set of → spectral lines is detectable. The binary nature of the system is deduced from the fact that the spectral lines exhibit periodic → Doppler shifts due to orbital motions in the system. Same as → SB1 binary. See also: → double-lined binary. |
singlet taktâyé Fr.: singulet A single unit; an unpaired or separate item. → doublet; → octet; → quadruplet. From → single + -et diminutive suffix, M.E. from O.F. -et (masc.), -ette (fem.). Taktâyé, literally "single-folded," from tak, → single, + -tâyé, from tâ- "fold, plait, ply; piece, part;" Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part" + -yé nuance suffix. |
singlet state hâlat-e taktâyé Fr.: état singulet In atomic physics, the electronic state of an atom or molecule for which the total → spin angular momentum is zero. |
singly ionized atom atom-e yekbâr yonidé Fr.: atome une fois ionisé An atom that has lost one electron and has become a positive ion. |
singly ionized carbon Fr.: carbone une fois ionié A carbon atom → singly ionized by a photon of energy 11.3 eV. The ion C^{+} emits a → fine-structure line (^{2}P_{3/2}→ ^{2}P_{1/2}) at 157.7 μm when excitation conditions are satisfied (critical density ~ 3 x 10^{3} cm^{-3}). In → photodissociation regions, [C II] 157.7 μm is a major cooling line for regions exposed to significant → far ultraviolet (FUV) photon fluxes. In Galactic → H II regions, as well as in the central regions of external galaxies, the luminosity of the [C II] line is typically ~ 0.05-0.5% of the FUV luminosity and correlates well with → carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities. |
singular takin (#) Fr.: singulier Math.: 1) Of or pertaining to a linear transformation from a vector space
to itself that is not one-to-one. M.E., from O.Fr. singuler "single, separate," from L. singularis "single, solitary," from singulus "one, individual, separate," from sim- (stem of simplus) + diminutive suffix. Takin, from tak "single, alone," related to tâq "odd, single," tâ, tâh "piece, part; fold, plait, ply;" Mid.Pers. tak "single," tâg, tâk, tâi "unit, piece, after numerals" + -in adj. suffix. |
singular isothermal sphere kore-ye izodamâ-ye takin Fr.: sphère isotherme singulère In models of star formation, an isothermal sphere in which the density distribution in the static or nearly static outer envelope obeys an r^{-2} power law. In the limit of infinite central concentration, the unstable equilibrium approaches the singular isothermal sphere which has the density and mass distributions ρ(r) = (a^{2}/2πG)r^{-2} and M(r) = (2a^{2}/G)r, where a is the isothermal → sound speed inside the cloud, G is the → gravitational constant, and r the distance from the center (F. H. Shu, 1977, ApJ 214, 488). → singular; → isothermal; → sphere. |
singular matrix mâtris-e takin Fr.: matrice singulière A → square matrix that does not have a → matrix inverse. |
singular point noqte-ye takin Fr.: point singulier The point M_{0}(x_{0},y_{0}) of the curve F(x,y) = 0, where at least one of the → partial derivatives ∂F/∂x and ∂F/∂y vanishes. See also → ordinary point. |
singular solution luyeš-e takin Fr.: solution singulière, ~ particulière Of partial differential equations, the solution which cannot be obtained from the general solution by particular choice of arbitrary functions. → general solution; → particular solution. |
singularity takini (#) Fr.: singularité 1) Math.: A point at which a given mathematical object is not defined. |
sink câhak (#) Fr.: puits 1) A region within a system where mass or energy is given up, in contrast to a
→ source, where mass or energy is released. M.E. sinken, O.E. sincan, from verb; cf. O.S. sinkan, O.N. sökkva, M.Du. sinken, Du. zinken, O.H.G. sinkan, Ger. sinken, Goth. sigqan "to sink." Câhak, from câh "a well" (Mid.Pers. câh "a well;" Av. cāt- "a well," from kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig;" Mod.Pers. kandan "to dig;" cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs," kha- "cavity, hollow, cave, aperture") + -ak diminutive suffix. |
sink particle zarre-ye câhak Fr.: particule puits In hydrodynamics codes, a way of treating a collapsing or accreting region, such as a star, as a simple → point mass. Indeed, in many situations, the scale of interest is much larger than the scale of the → accreting object itself and it would be impossible to perform the calculation otherwise. → Sinks are generally modeled as → Lagrangian particles (see, e.g., Bates et al. 1995, MNRAS 277, 362; Krumholz et al. 2004, ApJ 611, 399; Federrath et al. 2010, ApJ 713, 269). |
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