An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1381
  شکاور، شکمند   
šakâvar, šakmand

Fr.: sceptique   

A person who questions the validity or authenticity of something purporting to be factual.

From M.Fr. sceptique and directly from L. scepticus "the sect of Skeptics," from Gk. skeptikos "thoughtful, inquiring" (plural Skeptikoi "the Skeptics, followers of Gk. philosopher Pyrrho," who lived c. 360-270 B.C.). from skeptesthai "to reflect, look, view," → spectrum.

Šakdâvar, šakmand, from šakk, → doubt, + -âr contraction od âvardan "to bring, to cause, to produce," → cause, or -mand suffix of relation/possession.

  شکاور، شکمند   
šakâvar, šakmand

Fr.: sceptique   

1) Inclined to skepticism; having an attitude of doubt.
2) Doubtful about a particular thing.

skeptic; → -al.


Fr.: scepticisme   

1) A doubting or questioning attitude or state of mind.
2a) The ancient school of Pyrrho of Elis that stressed the uncertainty of our beliefs in order to oppose dogmatism.
2b) The doctrine that absolute knowledge is impossible, either in a particular domain or in general.
2c) A methodology based on an assumption of doubt with the aim of acquiring approximate or relative certainty.
3) Doubt or disbelief of religious tenets (

skeptic; → -ism.


Fr.: distordu   

General: Having an oblique direction or position; being in a slanted or unsymmetrical position.
Geometry: Two or more lines that are not parallel and do not intersect.
Statistics: Having → skewness.

From Old North French eskiuer "to shy away from, avoid," O.Fr. eschiver (Fr. esquiver "to shirk, dodge") "to eschew, keep away from;" related to shy.

Kažâl, from kaž "crooked, bent, being aside" (cf. Skt. kubja- "hump-backed, crooked," Pali kujja- "bent," L. gibbus "hump, hunch," Lith. kupra "hump") + -âl, → -al.

skew-symmetric tensor
  تانسور ِ پاد-همامون   
tânsor-e pâdhamâmun

Fr.: tenseur antisymétrique   

A tensor that is the negative of its → transpose. For example, a second-order covariant tensor Ajk if its components satisfy the equality: Ajk = - Akj. Also called antisymmetric tensor.

skew; → symmetric; → tensor.

Tânsor, → tensor; pâd-, → anti-; hamâmun, → symmetric.


Fr.: degré d'asymétrie   

A measure of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution. If the left tail (tail at small end of the distribution) is more pronounced that the right tail (tail at the large end of the distribution), the function is said to have → negative skewness. If the reverse is true, it has → positive skewness. If the two are equal, it has → zero skewness.

Noun from → skew + → -ness.

pust (#)

Fr.: peau   

1) The external protective membrane or covering of an animal's body, or that surrounding the flesh of a fruit or vegetable.
2) The outer protective covering of a structure. → skin effect.

M.E., from O.N. skinn "animal hide;" cf. O.H.G. scinten, Ger. schinden "to flay, skin;" Ger. dialect schind "skin of a fruit," Flemish schinde "bark;" from PIE *sken- "to cut off."

Pust "skin;" Mid.Pers. pôst "skin;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Av. pastô-, in pastô.fraθanhəm "of the breadth of the skin;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."

skin effect
  اُسکر ِ پوستی   
oskar-e pusti

Fr.: effet de peau   

The tendency of an → alternating current to concentrate in the outer layer of a conductor, caused by the → self-induction of the → conductor and resulting in increased → resistance.

skin; → effect.

âsmân (#)

Fr.: ciel   

The area high above the ground, buildings, landscape, or horizon.
The heavens or firmament, appearing as a great arch or vault.

M.E. from O.N. sky "cloud;" cf. O.E. sceo, O.S. scio "cloud;" O.H.G. scuwo, O.N. skuggi "shadow;" Goth. skuggwa "mirror;" PIE base *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal."

Âsmân "sky;" Mid.Pers. âsmân "sky, heaven;" O.Pers. asman- "heaven;" Av. asman- "stone, sling-stone; heaven;" cf. Skt. áśman- "stone, rock, thunderbolt;" Gk. akmon "heaven, meteor, anvil;" Akmon was the father of Ouranos (Uranus), god of sky; Lith. akmuo "stone;" Rus. kamen; PIE base *akmon- "stone, sky." The link between the "stone" and "sky" concepts indicates that the sky had once been conceived as a stone vault by prehistoric Indo-Europeans.

sky background
  پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ آسمان   
paszamine-ye âsmân

Fr.: fond du ciel   

The emission of a part of the night sky that does not contain any detectable objects. Sky background results from the combined radiation from faint, unresolved stars and other emitting astronomical objects. The mean brightness of night sky background measured at the → Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) for the period 1992 to 2006 are: U = 22.12, B = 22.82, V = 21.79, R = 21.19, and I = 19.85 mag arcsec-2 ( → rms ~ 0.2 mag arcsec-2). See also → sky brightness.

sky; → background..

sky brightness
  درخشندگی ِ آسمان   
deraxšandegi-ye âsmân

Fr.: brillance du ciel   

Atmospheric (→ airglow, → auroral emission, → artificial light) or extraterrestrial (→ scattered  → sunlight from Moon, scattered → starlight, → interplanetary dust) foreground light that → interferes with → observations.

sky; → brightness.

sky subtraction
  زیرکرشش ِ آسمان   
zirkaršeš-e âsmân

Fr.: soustraction de ciel   

The act or instance of removing the contribution of non-related, intervening foreground light to the object.

sky; → subtraction.

sky survey
  بردید ِ آسمان   
bardid-e âsmân

Fr.: relevé du ciel   

The observation and recording of large extents of the sky with a particular instrument using one or more wavelengths in the same spectral domain. → survey.

sky; → survey.

  نور ِ شهر، فروغ ِ آسمان   
nur-e šahr, foruq-e âsmân

Fr.: illumination du ciel   

The illumination of the night sky in urban areas caused by wasted light shining upward scattered off dust, humidity, and air. Skyglow is a type of → light pollution that results from light fixtures emitting a portion of their light directly upward into the sky. Light scattered in the atmosphere creates an orange-yellow glow above a city or town. Skyglow interferes with sensitive astronomical instruments designed to capture light from distant stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Skyglow can often be detected hundreds of kilometers away.

sky; → glow.

Nur, → light; foruq, → glow; šahr, → city; âsmân, → sky.

  نور ِ آسمان   
nur-e âsmân-e

Fr.: lumière du ciel   

Solar radiation which reaches the observer from the general sky. It is sunlight which has undergone multiple scattering events with the molecules of the Earth's atmosphere (Rayleigh scattering) or with clouds or other aerosols in the atmosphere. High levels of skylight reduce the contrast of a shadow. Also known as diffuse skylight, diffuse sky radiation.

sky; → light.


Fr.: dalle   

A broad, flat, somewhat thick piece of stone, wood, or other solid material (

M.E sclabbe, slabbe of unknown origin, maybe related to O.Fr. escopel, escalpe "thin fragment of wood."

Tiyât, from Kurd. (Ilâm) teyat "slab."


Fr.: barre oblique, slash   

An oblique line (/) used between alternatives (e.g. and/or), in fractions (e.g. 4/5), or in percent ratios (e.g. kilometer/hour).

From M.E. slaschen, perhaps from M.Fr. esclachier "to break," variant of esclater "to break, splinter."

Eslaš, loan from E.

palmé (#)

Fr.: ardoise   

A fine-grained rock formed by the metamorphosis of clay, shale, etc., that tends to split along parallel cleavage planes, usually at an angle to the planes of stratification (

M.E. sclate, from M.Fr. esclate, feminine of esclat "piece split off," (Fr. éclat) so called because the rock splits easily into thin plates.

Palmé "slate," "a board on which children learn to read," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *parn-, *parm- "feather," PIE *pernom-, *pornos- "feather," → tablet.


Fr.: grésil   

Precipitation in the form of → transparent or → translucent ice → pellets that are 5 mm or less in diameter, created by the freezing of rain as it falls (distinguished from hail).

M.E. slete; akin to M.H.G. sloz, M.L.G. sloten (plural) "hail."

Tangar, from Gilaki tangar "fine hail."


Fr.: slepton   

In → supersymmetry theories, a hypothetical → boson super-partner of a → lepton. See also → squark

s from → supersymmetry; → lepton.

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