# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 conditional proposition   گزاره‌ی ِ بوتاری   gozâre-ye butâriFr.: proposition conditionelle   A compound → proposition in which one → clause asserts something as true provided that the other clause is true. A conditional statement consists of two parts, a hypothesis in the "if" clause and a conclusion in the "then"clause. For instance, "If it rains, then they cancel school." It rains is the hypothesis. "They cancel school" is the conclusion. The clause following if is traditionally called the → antecedent, whereas the clause following then is called the → consequent. conduct   هاختن، هازیدن   hâxtan, hâzidanFr.: conduire   (v.tr.) To direct the course of; to lead or guide. To serve as a medium for conveying; transmit. (v.intr.) To act as a conductor.From L. conductus, p.p. of conducere "to lead or bring together," from → com- "together" + ducere "to lead."Hâxtan, hâzidan, from Mid.Pers. "to lead, guide, persuade," Av. hak-, hacaiti "to attach oneself to, to join," cf. Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows," Gk. hepesthai "to follow,", L. sequi "to follow;" PIE *sekw-. conductance   هازایی   hâzâyiFr.: conductance   The ability of a system to conduct electricity, calculated as the ratio of the current which flows to the potential difference present. This is the reciprocal of the → resistance, and is measured in → siemens or → mhos.→ conduct + → -ance. conduction   هازش   hâzešFr.: conduction   The transference of energy through a body, without visible motion of any part of the body. → induction; → reduction; → subduction; → transduction.Verbal noun from → conduct. conduction electron   الکترون ِ هازش   elektron-e hâzešFr.: électron de conduction   An electron whose energy lies in the conduction band of a solid, where it is free to move under the influence of an electron field.→ conduction; → electron. conduction band   باند ِ هازش   bând-e hâzešFr.: bande de conduction   In the energy spectrum of a solid, a range of energies in which electrons can move freely under the influence of an electrical field. Metals have many electrons in this range, insulators have none. In semiconductors the conduction band contains few electrons provided by impurity atoms or ejected from the valence bands by thermal energy or photon absorption.→ conduction; → bande. conductive   هازنده   hâzandéFr.: conducteur   (Adj.) Having the property or capability of conducting.From → conduct + -ive a suffix of adj. conductivity   هازندگی   hâzandegiFr.: conductivité   1) General: A measure of the ability to transmit, as electricity, thermal energy, sound, and so on. 2) → electrical conductivity. 3) → thermal conductivity.From → conductive + → -ity suffix forming abstract nouns expressing state or condition. conductor   هازنده   hâzandéFr.: conducteur   Substance, or body, which offers a relatively small resistance to the passage of an electric current.Agent noun from conduce, → conduct, + → -tor. cone   مخروط   maxrut (#)Fr.: cône   A solid bounded by a plane and the surface generated by a straight line which always touches a simple closed curve on the plane and passes through a fixed point not on the plane.L. conus "a wedge, peak, cone," from Gk. konos "cone, spinning top, pine cone," from PIE base *ko(n)- "to sharpen."Maxrut from Ar. confederation   هم‌هیاوش   ham-hiyâvešFr.: confédération   A body comprising independent organizations that cooperate for a common purpose.→ com-; → federation. confess   خستوییدن، خستو شدن   xastuyidan, xastu šodan (#)Fr.: avouer   To acknowledge or avow (a fault, crime, misdeed, weakness, etc.) by way of revelation (Dictionary.com).M.E. confessen, from Old French confesser (transitive and intransitive), from Vulgar Latin *confessare, from Latin confess-, past participle stem of confiteri "to acknowledge," from assimilated form of com "together" (see com-) + fateri "to admit," akin to fari "speak," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say."Xastuyidan, infinitive from xastu, → confessor. confession   خستویش   xastuyešFr.: aveu   1) Something that is confessed. 2) Acknowledgment or disclosure of sin or sinfulness, especially to a priest to obtain absolution (Dictionary.com).Verbal noun of → xastuyidan, "to → confess." confessor   خستو   xastu (#)Fr.: avouant   A person who makes a confession.→ confess; → -or.Xastu "a person who makes a confession, confessing," from Mid.Pers. xwastûg "confessing," xwastûgih "confession;" ultimately from *xva.stavana-, from *xva- "own, one's own," + *stau- "to paray, celebrate (in songs), praise" (Pers. sotudan/setây- "to praise"); cf. Av. stau-, stû- "to praise" (āstau- "to confess"); Skt. stav- "to honour, praise;" Gk. steutai "announces solemnly, boasts." configuration   همپیکرش   hampeykareš (#)Fr.: configuration   General: Arrangement of parts or elements in a composite object.Physics: The distribution of electrons in the various atomic orbital and energy levels.L.L. configuration, configuratio "similar formation," from L. configurare "to form from or after," from → com- + figurare "to form," from figura "figure."Hampeykareš (verbal noun from hampeykaridan), from ham-, → com-, + peykar "figure, form, mould, body" + noun suffix -eš. Peykar from Mid.Pers. pahikar "picture, image," from O.Pers. patikara- "picture, (sculpted) likeness," from patiy "against" (Av. paiti, Skt. prati, Gk. poti/proti) + kara- "doer, maker," from kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kar-, Skt.. kr-; cf. Skt. pratikrti- "an image, likeness, model; counterpart." confine   پربستن، پربست کردن   parbastan (#), parbast kardan (#)Fr.: confiner   To enclose within bounds; to restrict.M.E., from M.Fr. confins, confines, from L. confinis "boundary, border," from con-, → com- "with" + finis "end."Parbastan, parbast kardan, literally "close around," from par- "around," → circum-, + bast, bastan "to close," → closed. confined plasma   پلاسمای ِ پربسته   pelâsmâ-ye parbastéFr.: plasma confiné   Plasma in which magnetic field lines forming closed surfaces confine the plasma.Confined, p;p. of → confine; → plasma. confinement   پربست   parbast (#)Fr.: confinement   General: The act of confining; the state of being confined. Physics: A property of quantum electrodynamics whereby quarks cannot exist as free particles, but are forever bound into protons, neutrons, etc.Noun from → confine. confirm   آدشیدن   âdešidanFr.: confirmer   1) To support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify. 2) To establish the truth, accuracy, validity, or genuineness of.L. confirmare "make firm, establish," from → com- intensive prefix + firmare "to strengthen," from firmus, → firm.Âdešidan, from prefix a- + deš "→ firm" + infinitive suffix -idan. confirmation   آدش   âdešFr.: confirmation   The act of confirming or the state of being confirmed.Verbal noun from → confirm.