An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 calculator   افمارگر   afmârgarFr.: calculateur   A small electronic device that performs calculations.Calculator, from → calculate + → -tor.Afmârgar, from afmâr→ calculate + -gar agent suffix, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"). calculus   افماریک   afmârikFr.: calcul différentiel et intégral   The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the → differentiation and → integration of → functions of one or more → variables. Same as → infinitesimal calculus and → differential calculus .L. calculus "small stone," from calx, calcis "limestone," → calculate, + -ulus diminutive suffix, → -ule.Afmârik, from afmâr, → calculate + Pers. suffix -ik denoting a subject, a branch of sciences, a discipline, → ics. calculus of finite differences   افماریک ِ دگرسانی‌ها‌ی ِ کرانمند   afmârik-e degarsânihâ-ye karânmandFr.: calcul des différences finies   A → claculus based on the properties of the successive values of → variable quantities and their → differences or → increments.→ calculus, → finite, → difference.Afmârik, → calculus, degarsânihâ, plural of degarsân, → difference, karânmand, → finite. calculus of probabilities   افماریک ِ شوانایی‌ها   afmârik-e šavânâihâFr.: calcul des probabilités   A branch of mathematics that deals with the calculation of the probabilities of events.→ calculus; → probability.Afmârik, → calculus; šavânâihâ, plural of šavânâi→ probability. calculus of residues   افماریک ِ مونک‌ها   afmârik-e munakhâFr.: calcul des résidus   The application of → Cauchy's theorem to compute residues and poles, evaluate contour integrals, sum infinite series, and carry out related calculations.→ calculus; → residue. calculus of tensors   افماریک ِ تانسورها   afmârik-e tânsorhâFr.: calcul tensoriel   The branch of mathematics dealing with the differentiation of tensors.→ calculus; → tensor.Afmârik, → calculus; → tensor. calculus of variations   افماریک ِ ورتش‌ها   afmârik-e vartešhâFr.: calcul des variations   The study of maximum and minimum properties of → definite integrals.→ calculus; → variation.Afmârik, → calculus; varteš→ variation. calculus of vectors   افماریک ِ بردارها   afmârik-e bordârhâFr.: calcul vectoriel   The area of calculus dealing with differentiation and integration of vector-valued functions; a sub-area of tensor calculus.→ calculus; → vector.Afmârik, → calculus; bordâr, → vector. caldera   تیان   tiyânFr.: caldeira   A large, roughly circular, → crater with diameter at least three or four times depth on the summit or in the side of a → volcano. A caldera can form from a volcanic blast or the collapse of a volcanic cone into an emptied → magma chamber.From Sp. caldera "cauldron, kettle," also name of a crater on Canary Islands, from L. caldarius "of warming," from calidus "warm, hot," → calorie.Tiyân "large cauldron; cauldron used for warming water in a communal bathhouse," of unknown origin. Caldwell Catalog   کاتالوگ ِ کالدول   kâtâlog-e CaldwellFr.: catalogue de Caldwell   A collection of 109 impressive celestial objects compiled for amateur astronomers. These objects (→ star clusters, → nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → galaxies), selected from the → New General Catalog and the → Index Catalog, are not present in the → Messier catalog.Named after Patrick Caldwell Moore (1923-2012), English amateur astronomer, who compiled the catalog in 1995; → catalog. calendar   ۱) گاهشمار، گاهشماری، گاهمار؛ ۲) سالنامه   1) gâhšomâr (#), gâhšomâri (#), gâhmâr; 2) sâlnâmé (#)Fr.: calendrier   1) Any of various systems for measuring and recording the passage of time by dividing the year into days, weeks, and months. 2) A table showing the months, weeks, and days in at least one specific year. → chronology.M.E. calender, from O.Fr. calendier, from L. calendarium "account book," from kalendae "calends" the first day of the Roman month, from calare "to announce solemnly, call out," as the priests did in proclaiming the new moon that marked the calends, from PIE base *kele- "to call, shout" (cf. Skt. usakala "cock," lit. "dawn-calling;" Gk. kaleo "to call," kelados "noise," kledon "report, fame;" O.H.G. halan, O.N. kalla "to call;" O.E. hlowan "to low;" Lith. kalba "language").Gâhšomâr, gâhšomâri, gâhmâr from gâh "time," Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs, + šomâr, mâr "reckoning," → calculate.Sâlnâmé, from sâl, → year, + nâmé "a writing, letter, book." calendar day   روز ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   ruz-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâriFr.: jour du calendrier   A period of 24 hours, from one midnight to the following midnight.→ calendar; → day. calendar month   ماه ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   mâh-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâriFr.: mois du calendrier   One of the periods into which a calendar is divided, ordinarily 12, but in earlier systems 10 (the first Roman calendar under Romulus) or 13 (ancient Iranian calendar using a month intercalation).→ calendar; → month. calendar year   سال ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   sâl-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâriFr.: année du calendrier   The time interval between the new year's day in a given calendar system and the day before the following new year's day. In the Gregorian system the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. In the Iranian calendar it begins on Farvardin 1, the day closest to the spring equinox and ends on Esfand 29 or 30.→ calendar; → year. calf   ۱) گوگ، گوساله؛ ۲) پویز   1) gug (#), gusâlé (#); 2) povizFr.: 1) veau; 2) mollet   1) Young of a bovine animal. See also → calve, → glacier calving. 2) The fleshy part of a person's → leg below the → knee.M.E., from O.E. cealf, calf, cognate with M.Du. calf, Ger. Kalb, Gothic kalbo.1) Gug (Dehxodâ), variant gog "calf;" probably from Proto-Ir. *gao-ka "baby cow, little caow," from *gao- "cow, bull," → cow, + suffix -*ak. Gusâlé, literally "young in years," from gu, → cow, + sâl, → year. 2) Poviz, from Laki poviz "calf," may be ultimately from *povik, from *pov variant of pâ "leg, → foot" + suffix-ik, → -ics; cf. Ilâmi, Nahâvandi piz "the leg calf." calibrate   کبیزیدن   kabizidanFr.: étalonner   To adjust or determine, by comparison with a standard, the response magnitude of a measuring instrument as a function of the input signal. For example, to determine line wavelengths in the spectrum of an astronomical object, or to graduate a hygrometer.From M.Fr. calibre, via Sp. or It., from Ar. qalib "a mold, last," perhaps from Gk. kalopodion "a shoemaker's last," from kalon "wood" + podos gen. of pous "foot."Kabizidan, verbal form of kabiz (varianats kaviz, kaviž, kafiz) "a measure for grain, a bushel," from Mid.Pers. kabiz "a grain measure," loaned in Arm. kapic "a grain measure," and in Gk. kapithe, as attested in Xenophon. calibration   کبیزش   kabizešFr.: étalonnage, calibration   1) The act or process of calibrating or the state of being calibrated. 2) A set of graduations that show positions or values.Calibration, noun from → calibrate.Kabizeš, noun from kabizidan, → calibrate. calibration curve   خمِ کبیزش   xam-e kabizešFr.: courbe d'étalonnage   An empirical curve obtained through appropriate exposures in order to determine the instrument's response. For example, a curve allowing the conversion of relative intensities of an observed object into absolute fluxes, or a curve relating the detector's pixel positions to wavelengths.→ calibration; → curve. calibration error   ایرنگِ کبیزش   irang-e kabizešFr.: erreur d'étalonnage   A systematic error in the constant values to be applied to a measuring instrument.→ calibration; → error.Irang, → error; kabizeš, → calibration. calibration exposure   نوردادِ کبیزش   nurdâd-e kabizešFr.: pose d'étalonnage   An exposure obtained with an instrument mounted on the telescope using an artificial illuminating source in order to calibrate the instrument.→ calibration; → exposure.Nurdâd, → exposure; kabizeš, → calibration.