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internal photoelectric effect
oskar-e šid-barqi-ye daruni
Fr.: effet photoélectrique interne
The → photoelectric effect whereby photons absorbed by a solid (→ semiconductor) raise electrons from a lower to a higher → energy level (from → valence band to → conduction band). See also → external photoelectric effect.
internal structure of stars
sâxtâr-e daruni-ye setâregân (#)
Fr.: structure interne des étoiles
The physical characteristics of that part of a star lying below the → photosphere. More specifically, the study of its various zones (→ core, → convective zone, → radiative zone) and the transfer of energy through them.
kâr-e daruni (#)
Fr.: travail interne
Work done in separating the molecules of a system against their forces of attraction. Its value is zero for an → ideal gas.
Verbal noun of → internalize.
1) To incorporate (the cultural values, mores, motives, etc., of another or of a group),
as through learning, socialization, or identification (Dictionary.com).
jahâni (#), andarnafâni
Fr.: international, mondial
International, from → inter- + nation, from O.Fr. nacion, from L. nationem (nom. natio) "nation, stock, race," literally "that which has been born," from natus, p.p. of nasci "be born;" cognate with Pers. zâdan→ generate, + → -al.
Jahâni "of or relating to the world" (Fr. mondial),
International Astronomical Union (IAU)
Yekâyeš-e Jahâni-ye Axtaršenâsi
Fr.: Union Astronomique Internationale (UAI)
An astronomical association of astronomers that is the controlling body of world astronomy. It was founded in Brussels in 1919.
International Atomic Time (TAI)
zamân-e atomi-ye jahâni (#)
Fr.: Temps Atomique International (TAI)
A weighted average of the time kept by about 200 caesium atomic clocks in over 50 national laboratories worldwide. It has been available since 1955, and became the international standard on which UTC is based on January 1972.
International Date Line
xatt-e jahâni-ye gâhdâd
Fr.: ligne internationale de changement de date
An imaginary line following approximately the 180th meridian which, by international agreement in 1884, marks the beginning or or end of a day. The regions to the east of which are counted as being one day earlier in their calendar dates than the regions to the west.
International System of Units (SI)
râžmân-e jahâni-ye yekâhâ
Fr.: système international des unités
The metric system of units based on the → meter, → kilogram, → second, → ampere, → kelvin, and → candela. Also called MSKA system. Other SI units are → hertz, → radian, → newton, → joule, → watt, → coulomb, → volt, → ohm, → farad, → weber, and → tesla.
International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)
A satellite dedicated to spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects in ultraviolet wavelengths, launched in 1978. It was an international collaboration between → NASA, the → European Space Agency (ESA), and the United Kingdom's Science and Engineering Research Council. It operated until September 1996 and collected over 70,000 spectra. IUE consisted of a 45-cm telescope (f/15) equipped with two spectrographs operating in the ranges 1850-3300 Å and 1150-2000 Å. Each spectrograph had a high-resolution and a low-resolution mode with resolutions of about 0.2 Å and 6 Å respectively.
International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA)
hamdasti-ye andarnafâni-ye nepâhešgâh-e virâgin
Fr.: Alliance internationale de l'Observatoire Virtuel
An international cooperation whose objective is to facilitate the international coordination and collaboration necessary for the development and deployment of the tools, systems and organizational structures necessary to enable the international utilization of astronomical archives as an integrated and interoperating → Virtual Observatory. The IVOA, created in 2002, now comprises 20 Virtual Observatory programs from various countries and international organizations.
The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and software applications to work together by exchanging and sharing information in a standardized, accurate, and effective manner.
interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME)
ešâneš-e andarsayyâreyi-ye jerm az tâj
Fr.: éjection de masse coronale interplanétaire
Fr.: poussière interplanétaire
Particles of dust in the → interplanetary medium. They are left-overs from the beginning of the solar system or from other sources such as sublimating comets. Their existence was first deduced from observations of → zodiacal light.
Fr.: gaz interplanétaire
Electrically charged particles of the solar wind and gas liberated from comets within the solar system.
interplanetary magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye andarsayyârei
Fr.: champ magnétique interstellaire
The magnetic field that is carried along with the solar wind and fills the solar system space. It is wound into a spiral structure by the rotation of the Sun. At the Earth's distance from the Sun, it has a strength of about 5 x 10-5 gauss.
Fr.: matière interplanétaire
Material existing in the space between solar system planets. It includes interplanetary gas and dust.
Fr.: milieu interplanétaire
The material contained in the → solar system in the space through which the planets travel. It consists of the smaller objects such as → asteroids, → comets, → meteorites and also a general pervading → interplanetary dust. Moreover a → plasma of charged particles streaming outward from the Sun in the form of the → solar wind contributes to the interplanetary medium.
Fr.: espace interplanétaire
Same as → interplanetary medium.