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Fr.: vol spatial
A travel outside the Earth by manned or unmanned vehicle requiring space technology.
Fr.: groupe d'espace
Set of operations (rotation about an axis, reflection across a plane, translation, or combination of these) which when carried out on a periodic arrangement of points in space brings the system of points to self-coincidence.
The word group comes from the mathematical notion of a group.
Fr.: mission spatiale
A manned or unmanned space flight outside the Earth's atmosphere.
→ space; mission, from L. missionem (nominative missio) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," of unknown origin.
Gosilân, from gosil, variant gosi "sending away, dismission;" Mid.Pers. wisé "to despatch" (Parthian Mid.Pers. wsys- "to despatch;" Buddhist Mid.Pers. wsydy "to despatch;" Sogdian 'ns'yd- "to exhort"), from Proto-Iranian *vi-sid- "to despatch, send off," from prefix vi- "apart, away, out," + *sid- "to call" + -ân nuance suffix; fazâyi adj. of fazâ, → space.
Fr.: mouvement spatial
The velocity and direction of motion of a star or celestial object with respect to the Local Standard of Rest. Same as → peculiar velocity.
Fr.: sonde spatiale
A spacecraft carrying instruments intended for use in exploration of the physical properties of outer space or celestial bodies other than Earth.
Fr.: navette spatiale
A reusable space vehicle designed to travel between the Earth and an orbiting space station for specific missions (carrying a crew and a cargo deploying and retrieving satellites) and then to return.
→ space; M.E. shotil (n.); O.E. scytel "a dart, arrow;" cf. O.N. skutill "harpoon;" akin to shut, shoot.
Nâvak "small ship; ship like," from nâv "ship" (O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" cf. Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus "ship;" L. nauticus "pertaining to ships or sailors") + -ak diminutive/similarity suffix. Nâvak also means "a small arrow, an arrow flying swift," which may have a different origin.
Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
âgâhi az siteš-e fazâyi
Fr.: surveillance de l'environnement spatial
A program aimed at monitoring the near-Earth environment for recognizing and preventing space hazards by means of radar and optical observations from either space or the ground. The objective of the → European Space Agency initiative is to support the European independent utilization of, and access to, space for research or services, through the provision of timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the space environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding our planet Earth. The SSA Program was authorized at the November 2008 Ministerial Council and formally launched on 1 January 2009. The mandate was extended at the 2012 and 2016 Ministerial Councils, and the program is funded through to 2020. The program comprises three segments: 1) Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST), which is the monitoring and tracking of every object orbiting the Earth, such as satellites, space stations and debris. The objective is the prediction and warning of collisions and re-entry events. 2) → Space Weather (SWE), which aims at detection and forecasting of space weather and its effects through monitoring of the Sun, solar wind, magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere and disturbances in the geomagnetic field. 3) → Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), which provides warning services against potential asteroid impact risks, including discovery, identification, orbit prediction and civil alert capabilities.
Fr.: station spatiale
A large satellite equipped to support a human crew and designed to remain in orbit around Earth for an extended period and be used for a variety of purposes (conducting research, repairing satellites, performing other space-related activities).
tašnikšenâsi-ye fazâyi, fanâvari-ye ~
Fr.: technologie spatiale
The systematic application of science, technology, and engineering to the exploration and utilization of outer space.
teleskop-e fazâyi (#)
Fr.: télescope spatial
A telescope which is placed in an orbit around the → Earth and operates through commands from sent from the control center on Earth, such as → Hubble space telescope, → Herschel satellite, → Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), → Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), → International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), → Planck Satellaite , → Spitzer Space Telescope.
Fr.: vitesse spatiale
The velocity of a star relative to the Sun.
Fr.: météorologie de l'espace
The varying conditions in space and specifically in the near-Earth environment. Space weather is chiefly solar driven, resulting from solar activities such as → solar flares, → solar wind, and → coronal mass ejections that affect → magnetosphere, → ionosphere, and → thermosphere. Non-solar sources such as Galactic → cosmic rays, → meteoroids, and → space debris can all be considered as altering space weather conditions at the Earth. Space weather may affect the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The research in this field aims at monitoring and diagnosis of space weather conditions and constructing reliable numerical prediction models. See also → Space Situational Awareness.
Fr.: altération spatiale
The slight erosion of Solar System bodies (planets, moons, asteroids) caused by the → solar wind, → cosmic rays, and → micrometeorite bombardments. Space weathering affects the physical and optical properties of the surfaces of these bodies. Understanding this process is therefore important for the interpretation of remotely obtained spectral data, such as space probe photographs of outer Solar System moons.
A physical entity resulting from the union of space and time concepts. In its most simple version space-time is the four-dimensional continuum, having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate, in which any → event or physical object is located. In → special relativity it is Minkowski's flat space-time. In → general relativity, it is described by a curved entity characterized by a → metric. Free-fall motion describes the → geodesic of this curved space-time. It may have additional dimensions in the context of speculative theories, such as → string theory.
Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps
nemudâr-e fazâ-zamân (#)
Fr.: diagramme espace-temps
A simple way of representing the → space-time continuum, usually including time and only one spatial dimension. The curve of a particle's equation of motion on a space-time diagram is called a → world line. Same as → Minkowski diagram.
Fr.: intervalle espace-temps
Fr.: vaisseau spatial
Fr.: genre espace
Fr.: intervalle genre espace