<< < -es -it -sc 201 951 abe abs abs aca acc acc aco act ada adh ado aer aft air Alf alg alk alp Alt alt amb ana And ang ani ann ant ant ant apo app app Apu arc arg Arn art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut avo azi bac bal bar bar bat Bea Bel bet bia big bin bio Bir bla bla blo Blu Bok boo bou box bre Bri bro bur cal cal Can cap car Car cat cau cel cen cen cha Cha cha che Chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor Cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D l dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg Del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra Dsc dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ eru eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gam gau Gau gen geo geo geo geo Gib glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gui H-a hal Ham har Hay hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig hoa hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jab jet Jov Jup Kar Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal map mas mas mat Mau mea mea med Men mer Mes met met MHD mic mid mil min mir mix mod mol mom moo mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove Owl P-s Pal par par par par Pas pat pec pen per per per per per Pha pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pub pul pyc qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur S5- Sal sat sca sca sch sci Scu sec sec sed sel sel sem seq set sha she sho sid sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sti sto str str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit too Tor tra tra Tra tra Tra tri Tri tru tub tur two Typ ult ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver Ver vie vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>
scholar dânešpažuh, dânešvar (#) Fr.: 1) lettré, érudit; 2) boursier 1) A learned or erudite person, especially one who has profound knowledge of a
particular subject. → scientist.
M.E. scoler(e); O.E. scolere "student," from M.L. scholaris, from L.L. scholaris "of a school," from L. schola, from Gk. skhole "school, lecture, discussion; leisure, spare time." Dânešpažuh, from dâneš→ science + pažuh agent noun of pažuhidan "to search," → research. Dânešvar, from dâneš, as befor, + -var possession suffix. |
school dabestân (#) Fr.: école 1) An institution where instruction is given, especially to persons under
college age. M.E. scole, O.E. scôl, from L. schola, from Gk. scholé "spare time, leisure," from skhein "to get." Dabestân, from Mid.Pers. dibistân "school," literally "place of writing" or "the place where documents are kept," from dib, dip "→ document," + -istân suffix of place, → summer. |
Schottky barrier varqe-ye Schottky Fr.: barrière de Schottky A junction between a metal and a semiconductor, which exhibits rectifying characteristics. A Schottky barrier has a very fast switching action and low forward voltage drop of about 0.3 volts, compared with 0.6 volts in silicon diodes, which use adjacent p-type and n-type semiconductors. Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist, who described the phenomenon; → barrier. |
Schottky defect âk-e Schottky Fr.: défaut de Schottky An unoccupied position in a crystal lattice which forms when oppositely charged ions leave their lattice sites, creating vacancies. Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist; → defect. |
Schottky diode diod-e Schottky (#) Fr.: diode Schottky A → semiconductor diode containing a → Schottky barrier. Such a diode has a low forward voltage drop and very fast switching characteristics. Also called Schottky barrier diode and hot electron diode. → Schottky barrier; → diode. |
Schottky noise nufe-ye Schottky Fr.: bruit de Schottky Excess voltage generated by random fluctuations in the emission of electrons from a hot cathode, causing a hissing or sputtering sound (shot noise) in an audio amplifier and causing snow on a television screen. Same as → shot effect, → shot noise. Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist; → noise. |
Schrödinger equation hamugeš-e Schrödinger Fr.: équation de Schrödinger A fundamental equation of physics in → quantum mechanics the solution of which gives the → wave function, that is a mathematical expression that contains all the information known about a particle. This → partial differential equation describes also how the wave function of a physical system evolves over time. Named after Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), the Austrian theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize 1933, who first developed the version of quantum mechanics known as → wave mechanics; → equation. |
Schrödinger's cat gorbe-ye Schrödinger (#) Fr.: chat de Schrödinger A → thought experiment intended to illustrate the → superposition principle in → quantum mechanics. A cat is put in a steel box which is separated from the outside world. The box also contains a vial of lethal acid, a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, a → Geiger counter, and a hammer. If an atom decays and the Geiger counter detects an → alpha particle, the hammer breaks the vial which kills the cat. According to Schrödinger, as long as the box stays closed the cat's fate is tied to the → wave function of the atom, which is itself in a superposition of decayed and un-decayed states. Thus the cat must itself be in a superposition of dead and alive states before the observer opens the box, "observes" the cat, and "collapses" its wave function. However, Schrödinger's argument fails because it rests on the assumption that macroscopic objects can remain unobserved in a superposition state. When an atom decays, its wave function becomes entangled with the enormously complex wave function of the macroscopic Geiger counter. The atom is therefore "observed" by the Geiger counter. Since a Geiger counter cannot, for all practical purposes, be isolated from the rest of the world, the rest of the world observes the atom, and the cat is either dead or alive. → collapse of the wave function. Named after Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), → Schrödinger equation, who proposed the thought experiment in 1935 in order to illustrate the inconsistency of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics; cat, from M.E. cat, catte; O.E. catt, catte (cf. O.Fris, M.D. katte, O.H.G. kazza, Ir. cat, Welsh cath), probably from L.L. cattus, catta "cat." Gorbé, from Mid.Pers. gurbag "cat;" → Schrodinger equation, |
Schröter's effect oskar-e Schröter Fr.: effet de Schröter A phenomenon in which the observed and predicted phases of Venus do not coincide. At eastern elongation, when the planet is visible in the evening sky, dichotomy (half-phase) usually comes a day or two earlier than predicted, while at western elongation dichotomy occurs a day or two later. Named after Johan Schröter (1745-1816), German astronomer, who first described the effect in 1793; → effect. |
Schrodinger equation hamugeš-e Schrödinger Fr.: équation de Schrödinger A fundamental equation of physics in → quantum mechanics the solution of which gives the → wave function, that is a mathematical expression that contains all the information known about a particle. This → partial differential equation describes also how the wave function of a physical system evolves over time. Named after Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), the Austrian theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize 1933, who first developed the version of quantum mechanics known as → wave mechanics; → equation. |
Schrodinger's cat gorbe-ye Schrödinger (#) Fr.: chat de Schrödinger A → thought experiment intended to illustrate the → superposition principle in → quantum mechanics. A cat is put in a steel box which is separated from the outside world. The box also contains a vial of lethal acid, a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, a → Geiger counter, and a hammer. If an atom decays and the Geiger counter detects an → alpha particle, the hammer breaks the vial which kills the cat. According to Schrödinger, as long as the box stays closed the cat's fate is tied to the → wave function of the atom, which is itself in a superposition of decayed and un-decayed states. Thus the cat must itself be in a superposition of dead and alive states before the observer opens the box, "observes" the cat, and "collapses" its wave function. However, Schrödinger's argument fails because it rests on the assumption that macroscopic objects can remain unobserved in a superposition state. When an atom decays, its wave function becomes entangled with the enormously complex wave function of the macroscopic Geiger counter. The atom is therefore "observed" by the Geiger counter. Since a Geiger counter cannot, for all practical purposes, be isolated from the rest of the world, the rest of the world observes the atom, and the cat is either dead or alive. → collapse of the wave function. Named after Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), → Schrodinger equation, who proposed the thought experiment in 1935 in order to illustrate the inconsistency of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics; cat, from M.E. cat, catte; O.E. catt, catte (cf. O.Fris, M.D. katte, O.H.G. kazza, Ir. cat, Welsh cath), probably from L.L. cattus, catta "cat." Gorbé, from Mid.Pers. gurbag "cat;" → Schrodinger equation, |
Schroter's effect oskar-e Schröter Fr.: effet de Schröter A phenomenon in which the observed and predicted phases of Venus do not coincide. At eastern elongation, when the planet is visible in the evening sky, dichotomy (half-phase) usually comes a day or two earlier than predicted, while at western elongation dichotomy occurs a day or two later. Named after Johan Schröter (1745-1816), German astronomer, who first described the effect in 1793; → effect. |
Schwarzschild barrier varqe-ye Schwarzschild Fr.: barrière de Schwarzschild An upper theoretical limit to the → eccentricity of orbits near a → supermassive black hole (SBH). It results from the impact of → relativistic precession on the stellar orbits. This phenomenon acts in such a way as to "repel" inspiralling bodies from the eccentric orbits that would otherwise lead to capture as → extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI)s. In other words, the presence of the Schwarzschild barrier reduces the frequency of EMRI events, in contrast to that predicted from → resonant relaxation. Resonant relaxation relies on the orbits having commensurate radial and azimuthal frequencies, so they remain in fixed planes over multiple orbits. In the strong-field potential of a massive object, orbits are no longer Keplerian but undergo significant perihelion precession. Resonant relaxation is only efficient in the regime where precession is negligible. The Schwarzschild barrier refers to the boundary between orbits with and without significant precession. Inside this point resonant relaxation is strongly quenched, potentially reducing inspiral rates. |
Schwarzschild black hole siyahcâl-e Schwarzschild Fr.: trou noir de Schwarzschild A → black hole with zero → angular momentum (non-rotating) and zero electric charge derived from Karl Schwarzschild 1916 exact solution to Einstein's vacuum → field equations. Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), German mathematical physicist, who carried out the first relativistic study of black holes. → black hole. |
Schwarzschild metric metrik-e Schwarzschild Fr.: métrique de Schwarzschild In → general relativity, the → metric that describes the → space-time outside a static mass with spherically symmetric distribution. |
Schwarzschild radius šo'â'-e Schwarzschild Fr.: rayon de Schwarzschild The critical radius at which a massive body becomes a → black hole, i.e., at which light is unable to escape to infinity: R_{s} = 2GM / c^{2}, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass, and c the → speed of light. The fomula can be approximated to R_{s}≅ 3 x (M/Msun), in km. Therefore, the Schwarzschild radius for Sun is about 3 km and for Earth about 1 cm. |
Schwarzschild singularity takini-ye Schwarzschild Fr.: singularité de Schwarzschild A region of infinite → space-time curvature postulated to lie within a → black hole. |
Schwarzschild solution luyeš-e Schwarzschild Fr.: solution de Schwarzschild The first exact solution of → Einstein's field equations that describes the → space-time geometry outside a spherical distribution of mass. Briefly following Einstein's publication of → General Relativity, Karl Schwarzschild discovered this solution in 1916 (Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Phys.-Math. Klasse, 189); → Schwarzschild black hole. |
Schwarzschild's criterion sanjdiâr-e Schwarzschild Fr.: critère de Schwarzschild The condition in stellar interior under which → convection occurs. It is expressed as: |dT/dr|_{ad} < |dT/dr|_{}rad, where the indices ad and rad stand for adiabatic and radiative respectively. This condition can also be expressed as: ∇_{ad}<∇_{rad}, where ∇ = d lnT / d lnP = P dT / T dP with T and P denoting temperature and pressure respectively. More explicitly, in order for convection to occur the adiabatic temperature gradient should be smaller than the actual temperature gradient of the surrounding gas, which is given by the radiative temperature gradient if convection does not occur. Suppose a hotter → convective cell or gas bubble rises accidentally by a small distance in height. It gets into a layer with a lower gas pressure and therefore expands. Without any heat exchange with the surrounding medium it expands and cools adiabatically. If during this rise and → adiabatic expansion the change in temperature is smaller than in the medium the gas bubble remains hotter than the medium. The expansion of the gas bubble, adjusting to the pressure of the medium, happens very fast, with the speed of sound. It is therefore assumed that the pressure in the gas bubble and in the surroundings is the same and therefore the higher temperature gas bubble will have a lower density than the surrounding gas. The → buoyancy force will therefore accelerate it upward. This always occurs if the adiabatic change of temperature during expansion is smaller than the change of temperature with gas pressure in the surroundings. It is assumed that the mean molecular weight is the same in the rising bubble and the medium. See also → Ledoux's criterion; → mixing length. Named after Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), German mathematical physicist (1906 Göttinger Nachrichten No 1, 41); → criterion. |
science dâneš (#) Fr.: science 1) The study of the physical and natural phenomena, especially
by using systematic observation and experiment. M.E., from O.Fr. science, from L. scientia "knowledge," from sciens (genitive scientis), pr.p. of scire "to know," probably originally "to separate one thing from another, to distinguish," related to scindere "to cut, divide;" PIE base *skei- "to cut, split;" cf. Pers. gosastan "to tear, cut, break," from Mid.Pers. wisistan "to break, split," Av. saed-, sid- "to split, break," asista- "unsplit, unharmed;" Skt. chid- "to split, break, cut off;" Gk. skhizein "to split;" Goth. skaidan; O.E. sceadan "to divide, separate." Dâneš, verbal noun of dân-, dânestan "to know" (Mid.Pers. dânistan "to know"), variant šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know" (Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize"); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know." |
<< < -es -it -sc 201 951 abe abs abs aca acc acc aco act ada adh ado aer aft air Alf alg alk alp Alt alt amb ana And ang ani ann ant ant ant apo app app Apu arc arg Arn art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut avo azi bac bal bar bar bat Bea Bel bet bia big bin bio Bir bla bla blo Blu Bok boo bou box bre Bri bro bur cal cal Can cap car Car cat cau cel cen cen cha Cha cha che Chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor Cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D l dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg Del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra Dsc dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ eru eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gam gau Gau gen geo geo geo geo Gib glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gui H-a hal Ham har Hay hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig hoa hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jab jet Jov Jup Kar Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal map mas mas mat Mau mea mea med Men mer Mes met met MHD mic mid mil min mir mix mod mol mom moo mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove Owl P-s Pal par par par par Pas pat pec pen per per per per per Pha pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pub pul pyc qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur S5- Sal sat sca sca sch sci Scu sec sec sed sel sel sem seq set sha she sho sid sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sti sto str str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit too Tor tra tra Tra tra Tra tri Tri tru tub tur two Typ ult ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver Ver vie vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>