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A prefix meaning 103.
Introduced in France in 1795, when the → metric system was officially adopted, from Gk. khilioi "thousand," of unknown origin.
The basic unit of mass in the → International System of Units (SI) and → MKS versions of the → metric system, equal to 1,000 → grams. The kilogram was until 2019 defined as the mass of the standard (international prototype) kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), at Sèvre, near Paris, France. Copies of this prototype are kept by the standards agencies of all the major industrial nations. A kilogram is equal to the mass of 1,000 cubic cm of water at 4°C (→ maximum density). According to the new (2019) definition, the kilogram is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the → Planck constant (h) to be 6.62607015 × 10-34 when expressed in the unit J.s, which is equal to kg m2 s-1, where the meter and the second are defined in terms of c and Δν Cs.
A metric unit of force which is equal to a mass of one kilogram multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (9.80665 m sec-2). Therefore one (1) kilogram-force is equal to 1 kg × 9.80665 m sec-2 = 9.80665 → newtons.
A unit of → frequency, equal to 103 Hz.
A unit of length, equal to 1000 meters.,
A fast-evolving → supernova-like phenomenon resulting from the → merger of compact, binary objects such as two → neutron stars or a neutron star and a → black hole. A kilonova represents an → electromagnetic counterpart to → gravitational waves. Also called → macronova. A simple model of the phenomenon was put forward by Li and Paczynski (1998, ApJL 507, L59). The kilonova phenomenon can last between days and weeks following the merger. Within the small volume of space where a merger occurs, the combination of a huge amount of energy, and a large number of neutrons, is the instigator for the → r-process. The high density favors this rapid → neutron capture by nuclei, leading to the formation of new → chemical elements with high → atomic numbers and high → atomic weights. Many elements heavier than → iron form in these environments, including many rare elements, most notably → platinum (atomic number 78) and → gold (atomic number 79). The decay of heavy atomic nuclei leads to the radioactive heating and a release of electromagnetic radiation. The heat cannot easily escape as radiation, because of the high opacity of the ejected material. The heat is radiated thermally, heating up the nearby matter, which can be then seen in the → near-infrared. It was long thought that the r-process could also occur during core-collapse supernovae, but the density of neutrons within supernovae appears to be too low. The first indication of a kilonova following a short GRB came from the extensive follow-up of GRB 130603B, which was one of the nearest and brightest short GRBs ever detected, and also the first short GRB with an optical afterglow spectrum. The first kilonova found to be associated with a gravitational waves was detected in the study of → GW170817.
The term kilonova was introduced by Metzger et al. (2010, MNRAS 406, 2650), who argued that the peak luminosities of neutron star merger transients are typically ~ few × 1041 erg s-1, or a factor of ~ 103 larger than the → Eddington luminosity for a solar mass object. They therefore dubbed these events kilonovae; from → kilo-; → nova.
A unit of energy equivalent to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power expended for one hour (1 h) of time. The kilowatt-hour is not a standard unit in any formal system, but it is commonly used to measure the consumption of electrical energy. To convert to → joules, use: 1 kWh = 3.6 × 106 J = 3.6 × 1013→ ergs.
Of or relating to → kinematics. Same as kinematical.
Fr.: biais cinématique
A systematic error introduced in a sample of stellar → proper motion data by higher velocity stars that are easier to measure.
Fr.: viscosité cinématique
The ratio of the → dynamic viscosity (η) to the density (ρ) of a fluid: ν = η/ρ. The unit of kinematic viscosity in the → SI system is m2s-1. In the → cgs system, cm2s-1, equal to 10-4 m2s-1, is called the → stokes (st).
kinematically decoupled core (KDC)
maqze-ye jonbešikâné vâjafsaridé
Fr.: cœur cinématiquement découplé
A central, tightly bound stellar subsystem observed in some elliptical galaxies which rotates in the opposite direction with respect to the main body of the → elliptical galaxy. Elliptical galaxies are thought to be the result of the → merger of two or more sizable galaxies. A plausible scenario for how counter-rotating cores could form in such a merger is as follows. If at least one of the galaxies has a core region that is fairly tightly bound by the galaxy's gravity, and the direction in which the two galaxies orbit each other before merging is opposite to the direction of rotation of stars in that tightly bound core, it is likely that, after the merger, the tightly bound core will end up as the core of the new, larger galaxy, while retaining its original sense of rotation. The surrounding stars, on the other hand, will rotate in a different way dictated by the orbital motion of the galaxies around each other, before the merger. While this is a plausible scenario, it can only explain some of the counter-rotating cores. Recently A. Tsatsi et al. (2015, ApJ 802, L3) have shown that although the two → progenitor galaxies are initially following a → prograde orbit, strong reactive forces during the merger can cause a short-lived change of their orbital spin; the two progenitors follow a → retrograde orbit right before their final coalescence. This results in a central kinematic decoupling and the formation of a large-scale (~2 kpc radius) counter-rotating core at the center of the final elliptical-like merger remnant, while its outer parts keep the rotation direction of the initial orbital spin.
The branch of mechanics dealing with the description of the motion of bodies or fluids without reference to the forces producing the motion.
From Gk. kinetikos "moving, putting in motion," from kinetos "moved," verbal adj. of kinein "to move;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro" (cf. Mod.Pers. šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call").
Jonbešik, from jonbeš "motion" + -ik→ -ics. The first element from Mid.Pers. jumbidan, jumb- "to move," Lori, Laki jem "motion," related to gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," gāman- "step, pace" (Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come"); Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come."
Of or relating to motion; caused by motion; characterized by movement.
From Gk. kinetikos "moving, putting in motion," from kinein "to move," → kinematics.
Jonbeši, adj. of jonbeš, verbal noun of jonbidan, → move.
Fr.: énergie cinétique
The energy which a body possesses as a consequence of its motion, defined as one-half the product of its mass m and the square of its speed v, i.e. 1/2 mv2.
Fr.: hélicité cinétique
In fluid mechanics, a quantity that describes helical flow. It is defined by the integrated scalar product of the velocity field and the → vorticity: KK = ∫ dVu . (∇ x u). In the absence of magnetic field, this quantity is conserved by the → Euler equation. See also → magnetic helicity.
Fr.: potentiel cinétique
Same as → Lagrangian function.
damâ-ye jonbeši (#)
Fr.: température cinétique
The temperature of a gas defined in terms of the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules.
kinetic theory of gases
negare-ye jonbeši-ye gâzhâ (#)
Fr.: théorie cinétique des gaz
A theory that explains macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion.