# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

Homepage

Number of Results: 13176 Search : in
 superposition principle   پروز ِ برهم‌نهش   parvaz-e barhamnehešFr.: principe de superposition   1) Math.: The principle concerned with homogeneous and non-homogeneous → linear differential equations, stating that two or more solutions to a linear equation or set of linear equations can be added together so that their sum is also a solution. 2) One of the most fundamental principles of → quantum mechanics which distinctly marks the departure from classical concepts. It holds that any linear superposition of → wave functions is also a possible wave function. Simply put, the state of an object is all its possible states simultaneously, as long as we do not look to check. It is the measurement itself that causes the object to be limited to a single possibility. The superposition principle is rooted in the linearity of → Schrödinger's equation. Hence if two solutions of the wave function, ψ1 and ψ2, are known, other solutions, of the form: ψ = a1ψ1 + a2ψ2 also represent possible states of the system. supersaturation   ابر-انجالش   abar-anjâlešFr.: super-saturation   The process whereby the amount of → water vapor in the air exceeds that needed to → saturate. In other words, the condition of air in which the → humidity is above the level required for saturation at a given temperature (i.e. the → relative humidity is greater than 100%). When the temperature drops below freezing, this can lead to a situation where more water vapor is present in the air than the air can hold. At every temperature, there is a maximum amount of water vapor that can be supported in the air. The higher the temperature, the more water vapor can be accommodated. But if the air that is already at 100% relative humidity is cooled then it becomes supersaturated, and this situation is unstable. As a result, the excess water vapor crystallizes out, either into water droplets or directly into ice.→ super-; → saturation. superscript   زبرنوشت   zabarneveš (#)Fr.: indice supérieur   An → index (a digit or symbol) written slightly above and to the right of a letter, such as for representing variable components in → tensor analysis. → subscript. The most common mathematical superscript is an → exponent. Other common superscripts are the single and double prime marks indicating the → first derivative and → second derivative of a → function. See also → contravariant tensor.→ super- + script, → subscript.Zabarneveš, from zabar- "above," → superior + nevešt "written," → subscript. supersonic   اَبَر-صدایی   abar-sedâyiFr.: supersonique   Describing a speed that is greater than the → sound speed in the medium concerned. See also → Mach number, → subsonic.→ super-; → sonic. supersymmetry   اَبَر-همامونی   abar-hamâmuniFr.: supersymétrie   A class of theories that seek to unify the four fundamental forces of nature. It proposes symmetrical relationships linking fermions and bosons (particles of half integer spin, like electrons, protons, and neutrinos) with particles of integral spin (like photons and gluons).→ super; → symmetry. superthin galaxy   کهکشان ِ اَبَرنازک   kahkešân-e abarnâzokFr.: galaxie supermince   A galaxy that appears as an extraordinary thin and long figure on the sky because of its → edge-on orientation, highly flattened stellar → disk, and absence of a → bulge component. Superthin galaxies are → gas-rich and have optically diffuse disks with little internal absorption, as well as low emission-line intensity ratios and slowly rising → rotation curves. They seem to be among the least evolved disk galaxies in the local Universe, having undergone only minimal dynamical heating, → star formation, and → angular momentum transport. Examples are: UGC 7321, UGC 3697, UGC 9242.→ super-; → thin; → galaxy. superwind   اَبَر-باد   abar-bâdFr.: super-vent   A galactic-scale wind driven by the collective effect of a large number of → supernovae and → winds from → massive stars occurring in the central region of a galaxy. Superwinds have been invoked, among other things, as the source by which the → intergalactic medium is provided with → enriched gas (see, e.g. Heckman et al. 1990, ApJS 74, 833).→ super-; → wind. superwind galaxy   کهکشان ِ اَبَر-باد   kahkešân-e abar-bâdFr.: galaxie à super-vent   A galaxy with → superwind characteristics. M 82 and NGC 4666 are among superwind galaxy candidates.→ superwind; → galaxy. supplement   ۱) آپره؛ ۲) آپریدن   1) âporé; 2) âporidanFr.: supplément   1a) A thing added to something else in order to complete, reinforce, or extend it. 1b) A separation section added to a book, document, etc., to supply additional or later information, or the like. 2a) To complete, add to, or extend by a supplement. 2b) To form a supplement or addition to.From L. supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up, complete," from → sub- "up from below" + plere "to fill;" cognate with Pers. por, as below.Âporidan, from prefix â- + por "full;" Mid.Pers. purr; O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-; Gk. polus; P.Gmc. *fullaz (O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll, Goth. full, O.E. full). supplementary   آپرنده، آپره‌ای   âporandé, âpore-yiFr.: supplémentaire   Completing something or added as a supplement.→ supplement; → -ary. supplementary angle   زاویه‌ی ِ آُپرنده   zâviye-ye âporandéFr.: angle supplémentaire   The angle that when added to a given angle makes 180°. → complementary angle.→ supplementary; → angle. support   ۱) پادیر؛ ۲) پادیریدن   1) pâdir; 2) pâdiridanFr.: 1) appui, soutien, support; 2) supporter, soutenir, être pour, appuyer   1a) Something that serves as a foundation, prop, brace, or stay. 1b) The act or an instance of supporting. 2a) To bear or hold up (a load, mass, structure, part, etc.); serve as a foundation for. 2b) To uphold (a person, cause, policy, etc.) by aid, countenance, one's vote, etc.; back (Dictionary.com).M.E. supporten, from M.Fr. supporter, from L. supportare "convey, carry, bring forward," from → sub- "up from under" + portare "to carry."Pâdir "a column supporting a building; a post supporting a wall." suppose   انگاشتن، انگاریدن   engâštan, engâridan (#)Fr.: supposer   1) To assume (something), as for the sake of argument or as part of a proposition or theory. 2) To consider (something) as a possibility suggested or an idea or plan proposed (Dictionary.com).M.E. supposen, from O.Fr. supposer, from L. supponere "to put or place under," from → sub- "under" + ponere "to put, place," → position.Engâštan, engâridan "to suppose," from Mid.Pers. (h)angârtan "to conside, to bear in mind, to regard as," from han, ham "together" → com- + kartan "to establish; to declare; to found;" Av. han-kârayeiti, from han-, ham- "together," + kar- "to remember; to impress on memory." suppress   نهاویدن   nehâvidanFr.: supprimer   1) To put down by authority or force. 2) To keep from public knowledge. 3) To restrain from a usual course or action. → suppression.L. suppressus, p.p. of supprimere "to press down, stop, stifle," from → sub- "down, under" + premere "to press, push against," → express.Nehâvidan, from ne-, → ni- "down, below," + hâvidan "to press," → express. suppression   نهاوش   nehâvešFr.: suppression   The act of suppressing; the state of being suppressed. → Compton suppression, → zero suppression.→ suppress; → -tion. supra-   فراز، بالا، ابر-   farâz, bâlâ, abar-Fr.: supra-   A prefix denoting "over, above, beyond, greater than."From L. supra "above, over, before, beyond," → super-.Farâz "above, up, upon," → height; bâlâ "above, up, high," → height; abar-, → super-. supra-Eddington layer   لایه‌ی ِ ابر-ادینگتونی   lâye-ye abar-EddingtoniFr.: couche super-eddingtonienne   In some stellar models, particularly for evolved → massive stars, such as → red supergiants, → Luminous Blue Variables, and → Wolf-Rayet stars, an outermost layer of the stellar envelope where the luminosity might exceed the → Eddington limit. This is due to the → opacity peak produced by the variation in the ionization level of hydrogen in the outer → convective envelope, beneath the surface, of very luminous stars. The opacity peak generates supra-Eddington layers and density inversion. The high opacity decreases the Eddington luminosity in these layers, possibly to fainter levels than the actual stellar luminosity. As a result, the → radiative acceleration exceeds the → gravitational acceleration leading to → mass loss enhancement (see, e.g., A. Maeder, Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars, Springer, 2009).→ supra-; → Eddington limit; → layer. supra-horizontal branch star   ستاره‌ی ِ فراز ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی   setâre-ye farâz-e šâxe-ye ofoqiFr.: étoile au-dessus de la branche horizontale   A member of a rare class of objects found in → globular clusters to lie about one magnitude above and to the blue part of the → horizontal branch. These stars are identified as post → EHB stars on their way from to the → asymptotic giant branch.→ supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star. suprathermal escape   گریز ِ فرازگرمایی   goriz-e farâzgarmâyiFr.: échappement suprathermal   An → atmospheric escape mechanism that occurs where individual atoms or molecules in the atmosphere are raised to → escape velocity because of chemical reactions or ionic interactions. Same as → nonthermal escape (see, e.g., Catling, D. C. and Kasting, J. F., 2017, Escape of Atmospheres to Space, pp. 129-167. Cambridge University Press).→ supra-; → thermal; → escape. supreme   ابرتم   abartomFr.: suprême   1) Highest in rank or authority. 2) Of the highest quality, degree, character, importance, etc.M.E., from M.Fr. suprême, and directly from L. supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above," → super-.Abartom "highest," from abar "high, upon," → super-, + -tom superlative suffix, → extreme.