An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 394
grid
  شباک   
šabâk (#)

Fr.: grille   

1) A → grating of crossed bars; gridiron.
2) A → network of → horizontal and → perpendicular lines, uniformly spaced, for locating points on a map, chart, or aerial photograph by means of a system of coordinates.
3) Electricity: i) A metallic framework employed in a storage cell or battery for conducting the electric current and supporting the active material.
ii) A system of electrical distribution serving a large area, especially by means of high-tension lines.

Shortening of gridiron "a utensil consisting of parallel metal bars on which to broil meat or other food," from M.E. griderne, from gridel, from O.Fr. gredil, gridil, from L. craticula "gridiron, small griddle," diminutive of cratis "wickerwork."

Šabâk, from Laki šowâk "a net woven from goat fleece used for carrying chaff or fruits like melon," variants šâvâk (Lori), šavak (Nahâvand).

grinding
  سابش   
sâbeš

Fr.: ébauchage   

A first step in making a telescope mirror, which consists of rubbing the glass blank with hard tools (glass, tile, or metal) and abrasive grit to produce a concave form. → figuring; → polishing.

Grinding, verbal noun of grind, from O.E. grindan, forgrindan "destroy by crushing," from P.Gmc. *grindanan (cf. Du. grenden), from PIE *ghrendh- "crushing" (cf. L. frendere "to crush, grind;" Gk. khondros "granule, groats").

Sâbeš, verbal noun of sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch" (Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Proto-Iranian *sau- "to rub").

grism
  گریسم   
grism (#)

Fr.: grism   

An optical dispersing device used in a spectrograph. It is a combination of a prism and a grating, in the sense that the grating is placed side by side to one surface of a small-angle prism.

Grism, from gr(ating) + (pr)ism.

grit
  شن   
šen (#)

Fr.: grain abrasif   

Abrasive particles or granules, classified into predetermined sizes, typically of Silicon Carbide or Aluminum Oxide, used between the mirror and tile tool to grind the glass.

Grit, from O.E. greot "sand, dust, earth, gravel," from P.Gmc. *greutan "tiny particles of crushed rock" (cf. O.S. griot; O.N. grjot "rock, stone;" Ger. Grieß "grit, sand"); PIE base *ghreu- "to rub, pound, crush."

Šen "sand, grit."

groma
  گروما   
gromâ

Fr.: groma   

An instrument composed of a vertical staff and a horizontal cross with a plumb line at the end of each arm. It was used in ancient Roman empire to survey straight lines, squares, and rectangles.

From L. groma, gruma, from Gk. → gnomon, possibly through Etruscan.

groove
  شیار   
šiyâr (#)

Fr.: trait, sillon   

grating groove.

Groove, from O.N. grod "pit," or M.Du. groeve "furrow, ditch," from P.Gmc. *grobo (cf. O.H.G. gruoba "ditch," Goth. groba "pit, cave," O.E. græf "ditch"), related to grave (n.).

Šiyâr "furrow, ploughed ground," from Av. karši-, karša- "furrow," karšuiiā "plowed (land)," related to Mod.Pers. kašidan/kešidan "to carry, draw, protract, trail, drag;" Mid.Pers. kešidan "to draw, pull;" from Av. karš- "to draw; to plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," karṣū- "furrow, trench;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be in motion, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."

ground
  ۱) زمین؛ ۲) زمینه   
1) zamin; 2) zaminé (#)

Fr.: sol, terrain   

1) The surface of the Earth; soil.
2) The foundation or basis on which a belief or action rests.

From O.E. grund "foundation, ground, surface of the earth," from P.Gmc. *grundus (cf. Du. grond, Ger. Grund "ground, soil, bottom").

1) Zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."
2) Zaminé, from zamin + nuance suffix .

ground state
  حالت ِ زمینه   
hâlat-e zaminé (#)

Fr.: état fondamental   

The lowest energy state of an atom, molecule, or ion, when all electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels, i.e. not excited.

ground; → state.

ground-based observation
  نپاهش از زمین   
nepâheš az zamin

Fr.: observation au sol   

An astronomical observation carried out using a telescope on Earth, as opposed to that from an orbiting satellite.

ground; based, adj. of base, from O.Fr. bas, from L. basis "foundation," from Gk. basis "step, pedestal," from bainein "to step;" → observation.

Nepâheš, → observation; az "from," → ex-; zamin, → ground.

group
  ۱) گروه؛ ۲) گروهاندن؛ گروهیدن   
1) goruh (#); 2) goruhândan; goruhidan

Fr.: 1) groupe; 2) grouper; se grouper   

1a) Any collection or assemblage of persons or things considered together or regarded as belonging together; e.g. → Local Group of galaxies.
1b) Math.: A set of elements a, b, c, ..., finite or infinite in number, with a rule for combining any two of them to form a "product," subject to the following four axioms: → closure axiom, → associative axiom, → identity axiom, and → inverse axiom.
2a) (v.tr.) To place or associate together in a group.
2b) (v.intr.) To be part of a group.

From Fr. groupe "cluster, group," from It. gruppo "cluster, packet, knot," likely from P.Gmc. *kruppa "round mass, lump."

Goruh "group," from Mid.Pers. grôh "group, crowd."

group theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گروه   
negare-ye goruh (#)

Fr.: théorie des groupes   

A branch of mathematics concerned with structures called → groups and the description of their properties. Group theory provides a powerful formal method of analyzing abstract and physical systems in which → symmetry is present. It has a very considerable use in physics, especially → quantum mechanics, notably in analyzing the → eigenstates of energy of a physical system.

group; → theory.

group velocity
  تندای ِ گروه   
tondâ-ye goruh

Fr.: vitesse de groupe   

The velocity at which the envelope of a → wave packet propagates, vgr = dω/dk, at k0 (the central value of k). The group velocity can be equal to, larger, or smaller than the → phase velocity.

group; → velocity.

grouping
  گروهش   
goruheš

Fr.: groupement   

The act or process of uniting into groups.
A collection of things assembled into a group.
The occurence of several astronomical objects, usually of the same category, in a region of the sky.

Verbal noun of → group.

grow
  روییدن، رستن   
ruyidan (#), rostan (#)

Fr.: croître   

To increase by natural development, as any living organism or part by assimilation of nutriment; increase in size or substance (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. growen, O.E. growan; cf. Du. groeien, O.H.G. grouwan; PIE base *ghre- "to grow, become green," from which is also derived grass.

Ruyidan, rostan "to grow," from Mid.Pers. rôditan, rustan "to grow;" Av. raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," with fra- "to grow up, shoot forth;" cf. Skt. ruh- "to grow, develop, ascend, climb," rohati "grows," rudh- "to grow, sprout, shoot," rodhati "grows."

growth
  رویش، رست   
ruyeš (#), rist (#)

Fr.: croissance   

The act or process, or a manner of growing; development; gradual increase. → curve of growth; → grain growth.

Ruyeš, verbal noun of → grow; rost, past stem of ruyidan, → grow, used as verbal noun.

Grus
  دُرنا   
Dornâ (#)

Fr.: Grue   

The Crane. A constellation in the Southern Hemisphere , located at 22h 30m right ascension, -45° declination. Its brightest star, of magnitude 1.7 and spectral type B7. Abbreviation: Gru; genitive: Gruis

From L. grus "crane;" akin to Gk. geranos "crane;" Welsh garan; Lith. garnys "heron, stork;" O.E. cran; E. crane. Named by Johann Bayer in 1603.

Dornâ "crane," from Turkish, a bird of the family Gruidae.

guide
  ۱) راه‌بردن؛ ۲) راهبرد   
1) râh bordan; 2) râhbord

Fr.: 1) guider; 2) guidage   

1) To → control or direct the → motion or course of.
2) Something that directs the motion or points the way. → autoguider, → guide star, → guider, → lightguide, → waveguide.

M.E. giden (v.), from O.Fr. guider "to guide, lead," from Frankish *witan "show the way" (cf. Ger. weisen "to show, point out," wissen "to know;" O.E. witan "to see"). Cognate with Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan "to see"); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

Râh bordan "to guide, conduct," from râh "path, → way," + bordan "to carry, lead," → vector.

guide star
  ستاره‌ی ِ راهبرد   
setâre-ye râhbord

Fr.: étoile de guidage   

A relatively bright star conveniently located in the → field of view used for → guiding.

guide; → star.

guider
  دوربین ِ راهبرد   
durbin-e râhbord

Fr.: lunette guide   

Same as → guiding telescope.

guiding
  راهبرد   
râhbord

Fr.: guidage   

A → technique used in astronomical → observations to keep the → telescopetracking in pace with the → rotational motion of the → Earth. Guiding consists of maintaining the → image of a star motionless during the observation. See also → guiding accuracy, → guiding telescope, → offset guiding, → autoguiding.

Verbal noun of → guide.

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