An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 403
generalize
  هروین کردن، هروینیدن   
harvin kardan, harvinidan

Fr.: généraliser   

To make general, to include under a general term; to reduce to a general form.
To infer or form a general principle, opinion, conclusion, etc. from only a few facts, examples, or the like.

general; → -ize.

generalized
  هروینیده   
harvinidé

Fr.: généralisé   

Made general. → generalized coordinates; → generalized velocities.

P.p. of → generalize

generalized coordinates
  هماراهای ِ هروینیده   
hamârâhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: coordonnées généralisées   

In a material system, the independent parameters which completely specify the configuration of the system, i.e. the position of its particles with respect to the frame of reference. Usually each coordinate is designated by the letter q with a numerical subscript. A set of generalized coordinates would be written as q1, q2, ..., qn. Thus a particle moving in a plane may be described by two coordinates q1, q2, which may in special cases be the → Cartesian coordinates x, y, or the → polar coordinates r, θ, or any other suitable pair of coordinates. A particle moving in a space is located by three coordinates, which may be Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, or → spherical coordinates r, θ, φ, or in general q1, q2, q3. The generalized coordinates are normally a "minimal set" of coordinates. For example, in Cartesian coordinates the simple pendulum requires two coordinates (x and y), but in polar coordinates only one coordinate (θ) is required. So θ is the appropriate generalized coordinate for the pendulum problem.

generalized; → coordinate.

generalized forces
  نیروهای ِ هروینیده   
niruhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: forces généralisées   

In → Lagrangian dynamics, forces related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized forces are expressed by Fi = ∂L/∂qi, where L is the → Lagrangian function.

generalized; → force.

generalized momenta
  جنباک‌های ِ هروینیده   
jonbâkhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: quantité de mouvement généralisée   

In → Lagrangian dynamics, momenta related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized momenta are expressed by pi = ∂L/∂q.i, where L is the → Lagrangian function.

generalized; → momentum.

generalized velocities
  تنداهای ِ هروینیده   
tondâhâ-ye harvinidé

Fr.: vitesses généralisées   

The time → derivatives of the → generalized coordinates of a system.

generalized; → velocity.

generate
  آزانیدن   
âzânidan

Fr.: générer   

To bring into existence; create; produce.
Math.: To trace (a figure) by the motion of a point, straight line, or curve.

Generate, from M.E., from L. generatus "produce," p.p. of generare "to bring forth," from gener-, genus "descent, birth," akin to Pers. zâdan, Av. zan- "to give birth," as explained below.

Âzânidan, from â- nuance/strengthening prefix + zân, from Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" Mod.Pers. zâdan, present stem zā- "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; cf. Skt. jan- "to produce, create; to be born," janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignomai "to happen, become, be born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget") + -idan infinitive suffix.

generation
  آزانش   
âzâneš

Fr.: génération   

1) A coming into being.
2) The → production of → energy (→ heat or → electricity).

Verbal noun of → generate.

generative
  آزاننده، آزانشی   
âzânandé, âzâneši

Fr.: génératif   

1) Capable of producing or creating.
2) Pertaining to the production of offspring.

generate; → -ive.

generator
  آزانگر   
âzângar

Fr.: générateur   

1) A machine for converting one form of energy into another.
2) Geometry: That which creates a line, a surface, a solid by its motion.

From L. generator "producer," from genera(re)generate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs and, less commonly, from nouns.

Âzângar, from âzân the stem of âzânidangenerate + -gar suffix of agent nouns, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

genetic
  ژنتیک، ژنتیکی   
ženetik (#), ženetiki (#)

Fr.: génétique   

Pertaining or according to → genetics or → genes.

From Gk. genetikos, from genesis "origin," → gene; → -ic.

genetics
  ژنتیک   
ženetik (#)

Fr.: génétique   

The study of heredity and inheritance, of the transmission of traits from one individual to another, of how genes are transmitted from generation to generation.

From → genetic and → -ics.

genius
  ۱) فرهوش؛ ۲) فرهوشی   
1) farhuš; 2) farhuši

Fr.: génie   

1) An exceptionally intelligent person or one with exceptional skill in a particular area of activity.
2) Exceptional intellectual or creative power or other natural ability (Oxford Dictionaries).

From L. genius "tutelary deity or genius of a person;" originally "generative power," from gignere "beget, produce," → generate.

Farhuš, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," → perfect, + huš, → intelligence. Farhuši, from farhuš + -i.

genocide
  نژادکشی   
nežâdkoši (#)

Fr.: génocide   

The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group (Dictionary.com).

From Gk. genos "race, kind," → generate, + → -cide.

Nežâdkoši, from nežâd, → race, + koši, → -cide.

genus
  سرده   
sardé (#)

Fr.: genre   

1) Biology: The usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one species.
2) Logic: A class or group of individuals, or of species of individuals.
3) A kind; sort; class (Dictionary.com).

From L. genus "race, stock, kind, gender;" cognate with Gk. genos "race, kind," and gonos "birth, offspring, stock," → generate.

Sardé, from Mid.Pers. sardag "sort, kind;" Av. sarrəδa- "kind, type."

geo-
  زمین-   
zamin- (#)

Fr.: géo-   

A combining form meaning "the earth," used in the formation of compound words.

Geo-, form Gk. ge "earth, land, ground, soil."

Zamin, zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."

geocentric
  زمین‌مرکزی   
zamin-markazi (#)

Fr.: géocentrique   

1) Relating to, measured from, or with respect to the center of the Earth.
2) Having the earth as a center. → geocentric coordinate system, → Geocentric Coordinate Time, → geocentric cosmology, → geocentric parallax, → geocentric system.

geo- + → center + -ic an adjective-forming suffix.

geocentric coordinate system
  راژمان ِ هماراها‌ی ِ زمین‌مرکزی   
râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye zamin-markazi

Fr.: système de coordonnées géocentriques   

A coordinate system which has as its origin the center of the Earth.

geocentric; → coordinate; → system.

Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG)
  زمان ِ همارا‌ی ِ زمین‌مرکزی   
zamân-e hamârâ-ye zamin-markazi

Fr.: Temps coordonné géocentrique   

The proper time experienced by a clock at rest in a coordinate frame co-moving with the center of the Earth, i.e. a clock that performs exactly the same movements as the Earth but is outside the Earth's gravity well. TCG was defined in 1991 by the International Astronomical Union as one of the replacements for Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB).

geocentric; → coordinate; → time.

geocentric cosmology
  کیهان‌شناسی ِ زمین‌مرکزی   
keyhân-šenâsi-ye zamin-markazi (#)

Fr.: cosmologie géocentrique   

A model of the Universe in which the Earth is centrally located and the Sun, planets, and stars revolve around the Earth.

geocentric; → cosmology.

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