An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 486
brown dwarf cooling
  سردش ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ قهوه‌ای   
sardeš-e kutule-ye qahve-yi

Fr.: refroidissement de naine brune   

The process whereby a → brown dwarf cools over time after the → deuterium burning phase, which lasts a few 107 years. The → effective temperature and luminosity decrease depending on the mass, age, and → metallicity. Even though massive brown dwarfs may start out with star-like luminosity (≥ 10-3solar luminosities), they progressively fade with age to the point where, after 0.5 Gyr all → substellar objects are less luminous than the dimmest, lowest mass stars. More explicitly, brown dwarfs may start as star-like objects hotter than 2200 K, with → M dwarf spectral types, and, as they get older, pass through the later and cooler L, T, and Y spectral types (→ L dwarf, → T dwarf, → Y dwarf).

brown; → dwarf; → cooling.

brown dwarf desert
  کویر ِ کوتوله‌های ِ قهوه‌ای   
kavir-e kutulehâ-ye qahvei

Fr.: désert des naines brunes   

The observational result indicating a deficit in the frequency of → brown dwarf companions to Sun-like stars, either relative to the frequency of less massive planetary companions or relative to the frequency of more massive stellar companions. However, this desert exists mainly for low-separation brown dwarfs detected using orbital velocity surveys. No brown dwarf desert is noticed at wide separations (J. E. Gizis et al. 2001, ApJ 551, L163).

brown; → dwarf; → desert.

Brownian motion
  جنبش ِ براؤنی   
jonbeš-e Brawni

Fr.: mouvement brownien   

The continuous random motion of solid microscopic particles immersed in a fluid due to bombardment by the atoms and molecules of the medium. The first quantitative explanation of the phenomenon, based on the kinetic theory of gases, was forwarded by A. Einstein in 1905.

Named after Robert Brown (1773-1858), a Scottish botanist, who first in 1827 noticed the erratic motion of pollen grains suspended in water. → motion.

Brunt-Vaisala frequency
  بسامد ِ برانت-وایسالا   
basâmad-e Brunt-Väisälä

Fr.: fréquence de Brunt-Väisälä   

The frequency at which an air parcel will oscillate when subjected to an infinitesimal perturbation in a stably stratified atmosphere. For a medium with a continuous density gradient, it is expressed by the formula: N2 = -(g/ρ)∂ρ/∂z , where g is the → gravitational acceleration, ρ is density, and z geometric height. The stability condition is N > 0. It is also sometimes referred to as the buoyancy frequency. The higher the value of N the more stable the flow.

Named aster David Brunt (1886-1965), British meteorologist (1927, Q.J.R.Met.Soc. 53, 30) and Vilho Väisälä (1889-1969), Finnish meteorologist (1925, Soc. Sci. Fenn. Commental. Phys. Math. 2 (19), 19); → frequency.

  تنگل، حباب   
tangol, hobâb

Fr.: bulle   

General:A small body of gas within a liquid; a thin film of liquid inflated with air or gas.
Astro.: 1) Bubble-like structures of hot ionized gas created in the interstellar medium by the action of the powerful winds of massive stars.
2) A giant bubble-like component appearing during the growth of large-scale structures in the early Universe.

Bubble, from M.E. bobel, perhaps from M.Du. bobbel.

Tangol "bubble," from štiyâni dialect, maybe from tan "body" + gol "flower," literally "that which has a delicate body (like a flower)." This etymology is derived from the observation that in Pers. bubble is often likened to a flower: qonce-ye âb, kupale-ye âb, quze-ye âb [Dehxodâ] "water blossom, water flower, water bud."
Hobâb, from Ar. habâb.

bubble chamber
  اتاقک ِ تنگل، ~ حباب   
otâqak-e tangol, ~ hobâb

Fr.: chambre à bulles   

A tank filled with a transparent liquid that is on the brink of boiling. When a charged particle passes through the liquid, the energy deposited initiates boiling along the path, leaving a trail of tiny bubbles. The bubble chamber is no longer in wide use for particle experiments.

bubble; → chamber.

Bubble Nebula
  میغ ِ تنگل، ~ حباب   
miq-e tangol, ~ hobâb

Fr.: Nébuleuse bulle   

The → diffuse nebula NGC 7635 in the constellation → Cassiopeia lying at a distance of about 11,000 light-years. About 10 light-years across, it is visible with a small telescope.

bubble; → nebula.


Fr.: bug, bogue   

A defect or imperfection, as in a mechanical device, computer program, or plan (

From bugge "beetle," apparently alteration of M.E. budde, O.E. -budda "beetle."

Bug, from Kurd. Kurmanji bihuk "bug, insect."

Bug Nebula
  میغ ِ شاپرک   
miq-e Šâparak

Fr.: nébuleuse de l'insecte   

The double-lobed → planetary nebula NGC 6302, which lies in → Scorpius at a distance of about 4000 → light-years. The central very hot star seems to have violently ejected material in two distinct directions.

bug; → nebula.

Šâparak "night butterfly, bat," from šab "night" + parak "flying," from paridan "to fly."

  کوژی، بر‌آمدگی   
kuži, barâmadegi

Fr.: bulbe, bourrelet   

1) A rounded projection, bend, or protruding part; protuberance; hump (
2) → galaxy bulge.

Bulge, from O.Fr. bouge "leather bag," from L. bulga "leather bag," of Gaulish origin.

Kuži "convexity," from kuž, → convex.
Barâmadegi, from barâmadan "to grow out; to emerge," from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar, O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to," Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + âmadan "to come" (Mid.Pers. âmadan; O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come").

golulé (#)

Fr.: balle   

1) A small, metal object that is fired from a gun.
2) Something resembling a bullet, in shape or effect. → Bullet cluster.

From M.Fr. boulette "cannonball, small ball," diminutive of boule "a ball," from L. bulla "round thing, bubble, knob," cognate with bowl and boil.

Golulé "bullet," variants gullé, goruk, gulu, gudé, guy "ball, sphere;" cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour;" Pali gula- "ball;" Gk. gloutos "rump;" L. glomus "ball," globus "globe;" Ger. Kugel, E. clot; PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."

Bullet cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ گلوله   
xuše-ye golulé

Fr.: amas de la Balle, ~ du Boulet   

A → cluster of galaxies at a → redshift of z = 0.296 undergoing a violent → merger process nearly in the → plane of the sky. Also known as 1E 0657-558. The head-on collision between the main cluster and a subcluster ramming with an apparent speed of about 4700 km s-1 occurred about 150 x 106 years ago. The two clusters are currently moving away from each other while the space between them is filled with a very hot gas (first observed in X-rays by → Chandra) resulting from the overheating due to the collision. The Bullet cluster has the highest X-ray luminosity and temperature of all known clusters. The X-ray gas of the bullet (amounting to 2 x 1013 solar masses) collides with the X-ray gas of the main cluster (1014 solar masses) and forms a well defined → supersonic (Mach 3) → bow shock. A significant offset between the distribution of X-ray emission and the mass distribution has been observed, and diversely interpreted.

The name Bullet refers to the smaller subcluster, that has created the bow shock; → cluster.

bump Cepheid
  کِفِیءوسی ِ قوزدار، ~ زوکدار   
Kefeusi-ye quzâr, ~ zokdâr

Fr.: céphéide à bosse   

A subtype of classical → Cepheid variable stars that show a bump on the descending branch of their → light curve.

Bump "a relatively abrupt convexity or bulge on a surface," probably imitative of the sound of a blow; → Cepheid.

Quzdâr, from quz "hump," variant of kužconvex + -dâr "possessing," from dâštan "to have, possess." Zokdâr, from Lori zok "a raised spot, a bulge," cf. Northern Fârs Âbâdé dialect lok " swellimg, knob;" Kefeusi, → Cepheid.


Fr.: flottabilité   

The upward force that a → fluid exerts on an immersed body which is less dense than the fluid. It is equal to the → weight of the fluid displaced. Thus a body weighs less when weighed in water, the apparent loss in weight being equal to the weight of the water displaced. Buoyancy allows a boat to float on water and provides lift for balloons. See also → buoyant force; → Archimedes' principle.

From buoy, → buoyant + -ancy a suffix used to form nouns denoting state or quality, from L. -antia, from -ant + -ia.

Bâlârâni literally "pushing up," from bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height" (variants boland "high, tall, elevated, sublime," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. and E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high") + râni verbal noun of rândan "to push, drive, cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

buoyancy frequency
  بسامد ِ بالارانی   
basâmad-e bâlârâni

Fr.: fréquence de flottabilité   

Same as the → Brunt-Vaisala frequency.

buoyancy; → frequency.

buoyant force
  نیروی ِ بالاران   
niru-ye bâlârân

Fr.: poussée d'Archimède   

The force that causes immersed bodies to float or rise to the surface of a liquid or upward in a gas. Buoyant force is produced by → gravity and density differences. Same as → buoyancy.

From buoy (current meaning) "a float moored in water to mark a location," from M.E. boye, from O.Fr. buie or M.Du. boeye, from L. boia "fetter, chain" + suffix -ant; → force.

  ۱) سوختن؛ ۲) سوزاندن   
1) suxtan; 2) suzândan

Fr.: brûler   

1) (v.intr.) To undergo combustion (fast or slow).
To undergo fusion or fission.
2) ( To cause to undergo combustion.
To use as fuel or as a source of heat.

Burn, from M.E. bernen, brennen, combination of O.E. beornan (intr.) and bærnan (tr.), both from P.Gmc. *brenwanan; cf. Goth. brannjan, O.H.G. brennen.

Suxtan, suzândan, from Mid.Pers. sôxtan, sôzidan "to burn;" Av. base saoc- "to burn, inflame" sūcā "brilliance," upa.suxta- "inflamed;" cf. Skt. śoc- "to light, glow, burn," śocati "burns," (caus.) socayati, śuc- "flame, glow," śoka- "light, flame;" PIE base *(s)keuk- "to shine."

suzeš (#)

Fr.: combustion   

The state, process, or effect of being on fire, burned, or subjected to intense heat. → helium burning; → neon burning; → oxygen burning; → shell burning.

Verbal noun of → burn.

burning sphere
  گوی ِ سوزان   
guy-e suzân

Fr.: sphère ardente   

A piece of glass of roundish shape, possibly made of rock crystals or a globular container filled with water, whose use is attested in ancient civilizations. In his comedy The Clouds, the Greek playwright Aristophanes (448-380 BC) mentions globules of glass that were known as burning spheres. Several Roman writers (Pliny, Seneca, Plutarch) speak of burning glasses. In particular, Seneca specifies that small and indistinct written characters appear larger and clearer when viewed through a globular glass filled with water. See also → magnifying glass.

burning; → sphere.

Guy, → globe; suzân "burning," → burning.

  ۱) بلک؛ ۲) بلکیدن   
1) belk; 2) belkidan

Fr.: 1) sursaut, flambée, impulsion; 2) éclater   

1a) General: An abrupt, intense increase. A period of intense activity. A sudden outbreak or outburst. An explosion.
1b) Astro.: A period of abrupt increase in the intensity of a phenomenon, for example → star formation rate or emission of radiation such as → X-ray burst, → gamma-ray burst, or → cosmic-ray burst. See also → burst of star formation, → starburst galaxy.
2) To come open or fly apart suddenly or violently, especially from internal pressure.

M.E. bersten, from O.E. berstan, akin to O.H.G. berstan "to burst;" from PIE *bhres- "to burst, break, crack."

1) Belk, Mod.Pers. "a blaze, a flame." The term has several variants, including in dialects: balk [Mo'in], pâlk (Tokharian AB), bal (Gilaki, Semnâni, Sorxeyi, Sangesari, Lahijâni), val (Gilaki), bilese (Kordi), beleyz (Lori), warq, barx [Mo'in], and the Pers. widespread term gorr "burst of fire." Belk derives probably from Mid.Pers. brâh, Av. braz- "to shine, gleam, flash, radiate," cf. Skt. bhâ- "to shine," bhrajate "shines, glitters," O.H.G. beraht "bright," O.E. beorht "bright;" PIE *bhereg- "to shine." The Mod.Pers. barq "glitter; → electricity" probably belongs to this family. Therefore, the Hebrew barak and Ar. barq may be loanwords from Old or Mid.Pers.
2) Belkidan, from belk + infinitive suffix -idan.

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