The only liquid non-metallic chemical element; symbol Br. → Atomic number 35; → atomic weight 79.904; → melting point -7.2°C; → boiling point 58.78°C; → specific gravity of liquid 3.12 at 20°C; → valence -1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. A member of the halogen group of elements. Volatilizes readily at room temperature to a red vapor with strong disagreeable odor and very irritating effect on the eyes and throat. Occurs in combination with various metals, as potassium, sodium and magnesium bromides, which are found in mineral waters, in river and sea-water, and occasionally in marine plants and animals. Its compounds are widely used in photography and medicine. Discovered by Antoine-Jerome Balard (1802-1876) in 1826. Its two stable → isotopes are 79Br (50.69%) and 81Br (49.31%).
From Fr. brome, from Gk. bromos for "stench, bad odor," coined by its discoverer.
Brom, loan from Fr., as above.
boronz (#), mefraq (#)
A class of → alloys in which → copper and → tin are the dominant elements. The name is extended by usage to include many other copper-rich alloys containing → phosphorus, → manganese, → aluminium, or → silicon.
From Fr. bronze, from It. bronzo, from M.L. bronzium, of unknown origin, maybe from Iranian, cf. Mid.Pers. brinj "bronze, brass;" Mod.Pers. berenj "brass."
Boronz, loan from Fr., as above. Mefraq, from Ar.
asr-e boronz (#)
Fr.: âge du fer
A period of time between the → Stone Age and the → Iron Age when bronze was used widely to make tools, weapons, and other implements. The Bronze Age starts at different areas of the world at different times. The earliest use of bronze for making farm tools and weapons are found in Near and Middle East and date back to about 3700 BC. The Bronze Age starts about 2300 BC in Europe.
Son of the same parents as another person.
M.E.; O.E. brothor; cognate with Du. broeder, Ger. Bruder, Goth. brothar, Skt. bhrātr, Gk. phrater, L. frater, Pers. barâdar, as below, Rus. brat; PIE *bhrater.
Barâdar, from Mid.Pers. brât(ar) "brother;" O.Pers. brata-; Av. brātar- "brother;" cognate with E. brother, as above.
A dusky color between red and black.
M.E. broun, from O.E. brun "dark," cf. Du. bruin, Ger. braun; PIE base *bher- "shining, brown," related to *bheros "dark animal" (cf. beaver, bear).
Qahvei-yi, color of qahvé "coffee."
Fr.: naine brune
A star-like object whose mass is too small to sustain → hydrogen fusion in its interior and become a star. Brown dwarfs are → substellar objects and occupy an intermediate regime between those of stars and giant planets. With a mass less than 0.08 times that of the Sun (about 80 → Jupiter masses), nuclear reactions in the core of brown dwarfs are limited to the transformation of → deuterium into 3He. The reason is that the cores of these objects are supported against → gravitational collapse by electron → degeneracy pressure (at early spectral types) and → Coulomb pressure (at later spectral types). Brown dwarfs, as ever cooling objects, will have late M dwarf spectral types within a few Myrs of their formation and gradually evolve as L, T and Y dwarfs → brown dwarf cooling. As late-M and early-L dwarfs, they overlap in temperature with the cool end of the stellar → main sequence (→ M dwarf, → L dwarf, → T dwarf, → Y dwarf). In contrast to the OBAFGKM sequence, the M-L-T-Y sequence is an evolutionary one. These objects were first postulated by Kumar (1963, ApJ 137, 1121 & 1126) and Hayashi & Nakano (1963, Prog. Theor.Phys. 30, 460).
brown dwarf cooling
sardeš-e kutule-ye qahve-yi
Fr.: refroidissement de naine brune
The process whereby a → brown dwarf cools over time after the → deuterium burning phase, which lasts a few 107 years. The → effective temperature and luminosity decrease depending on the mass, age, and → metallicity. Even though massive brown dwarfs may start out with star-like luminosity (≥ 10-3→ solar luminosities), they progressively fade with age to the point where, after 0.5 Gyr all → substellar objects are less luminous than the dimmest, lowest mass stars. More explicitly, brown dwarfs may start as star-like objects hotter than 2200 K, with → M dwarf spectral types, and, as they get older, pass through the later and cooler L, T, and Y spectral types (→ L dwarf, → T dwarf, → Y dwarf).
brown dwarf desert
kavir-e kutulehâ-ye qahvei
Fr.: désert des naines brunes
The observational result indicating a deficit in the frequency of → brown dwarf companions to Sun-like stars, either relative to the frequency of less massive planetary companions or relative to the frequency of more massive stellar companions. However, this desert exists mainly for low-separation brown dwarfs detected using orbital velocity surveys. No brown dwarf desert is noticed at wide separations (J. E. Gizis et al. 2001, ApJ 551, L163).
Fr.: mouvement brownien
The continuous random motion of solid microscopic particles immersed in a fluid due to bombardment by the atoms and molecules of the medium. The first quantitative explanation of the phenomenon, based on the kinetic theory of gases, was forwarded by A. Einstein in 1905.
Named after Robert Brown (1773-1858), a Scottish botanist, who first in 1827 noticed the erratic motion of pollen grains suspended in water. → motion.
Fr.: fréquence de Brunt-Väisälä
The frequency at which an air parcel will oscillate when subjected to an infinitesimal perturbation in a stably stratified atmosphere. For a medium with a continuous density gradient, it is expressed by the formula: N2 = -(g/ρ)∂ρ/∂z , where g is the → gravitational acceleration, ρ is density, and z geometric height. The stability condition is N > 0. It is also sometimes referred to as the buoyancy frequency. The higher the value of N the more stable the flow.
Named aster David Brunt (1886-1965), British meteorologist (1927, Q.J.R.Met.Soc. 53, 30) and Vilho Väisälä (1889-1969), Finnish meteorologist (1925, Soc. Sci. Fenn. Commental. Phys. Math. 2 (19), 19); → frequency.
General:A small body of gas within a liquid; a thin film of
liquid inflated with air or gas.
Bubble, from M.E. bobel, perhaps from M.Du. bobbel.
Tangol "bubble," from Âštiyâni dialect, maybe
from tan "body" + gol "flower," literally
"that which has a delicate body (like a flower)." This etymology
is derived from the observation that in Pers. bubble is often likened
to a flower:
qonce-ye âb, kupale-ye âb, quze-ye âb
[Dehxodâ] "water blossom, water flower, water bud."
otâqak-e tangol, ~ hobâb
Fr.: chambre à bulles
A tank filled with a transparent liquid that is on the brink of boiling. When a charged particle passes through the liquid, the energy deposited initiates boiling along the path, leaving a trail of tiny bubbles. The bubble chamber is no longer in wide use for particle experiments.
miq-e tangol, ~ hobâb
Fr.: Nébuleuse bulle
Fr.: bug, bogue
A defect or imperfection, as in a mechanical device, computer program, or plan (Dictionary.com).
From bugge "beetle," apparently alteration of M.E. budde, O.E. -budda "beetle."
Bug, from Kurd. Kurmanji bihuk "bug, insect."
Fr.: nébuleuse de l'insecte
The double-lobed → planetary nebula NGC 6302, which lies in → Scorpius at a distance of about 4000 → light-years. The central very hot star seems to have violently ejected material in two distinct directions.
Šâparak "night butterfly, bat," from šab "night" + parak "flying," from paridan "to fly."
Fr.: bulbe, bourrelet
1) A rounded projection, bend, or protruding part; protuberance; hump (Dictionary.com).
Bulge, from O.Fr. bouge "leather bag," from L. bulga "leather bag," of Gaulish origin.
Kuži "convexity," from kuž, → convex.
1) A small, metal object that is fired from a gun.
From M.Fr. boulette "cannonball, small ball," diminutive of boule "a ball," from L. bulla "round thing, bubble, knob," cognate with bowl and boil.
Golulé "bullet," variants gullé, goruk, gulu, gudé, guy "ball, sphere;" cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour;" Pali gula- "ball;" Gk. gloutos "rump;" L. glomus "ball," globus "globe;" Ger. Kugel, E. clot; PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."
Fr.: amas de la Balle, ~ du Boulet
A → cluster of galaxies at a → redshift of z = 0.296 undergoing a violent → merger process nearly in the → plane of the sky. Also known as 1E 0657-558. The head-on collision between the main cluster and a subcluster ramming with an apparent speed of about 4700 km s-1 occurred about 150 x 106 years ago. The two clusters are currently moving away from each other while the space between them is filled with a very hot gas (first observed in X-rays by → Chandra) resulting from the overheating due to the collision. The Bullet cluster has the highest X-ray luminosity and temperature of all known clusters. The X-ray gas of the bullet (amounting to 2 x 1013 solar masses) collides with the X-ray gas of the main cluster (1014 solar masses) and forms a well defined → supersonic (Mach 3) → bow shock. A significant offset between the distribution of X-ray emission and the mass distribution has been observed, and diversely interpreted.
The name Bullet refers to the smaller subcluster, that has created the bow shock; → cluster.
Kefeusi-ye quzâr, ~ zokdâr
Fr.: céphéide à bosse
Bump "a relatively abrupt convexity or bulge on a surface," probably imitative of the sound of a blow; → Cepheid.
Quzdâr, from quz "hump," variant of kuž→ convex + -dâr "possessing," from dâštan "to have, possess." Zokdâr, from Lori zok "a raised spot, a bulge," cf. Northern Fârs Âbâdé dialect lok " swellimg, knob;" Kefeusi, → Cepheid.
The upward force that a → fluid exerts on an immersed body which is less dense than the fluid. It is equal to the → weight of the fluid displaced. Thus a body weighs less when weighed in water, the apparent loss in weight being equal to the weight of the water displaced. Buoyancy allows a boat to float on water and provides lift for balloons. See also → buoyant force; → Archimedes' principle.
From buoy, → buoyant + -ancy a suffix used to form nouns denoting state or quality, from L. -antia, from -ant + -ia.
Bâlârâni literally "pushing up," from bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height" (variants boland "high, tall, elevated, sublime," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. and E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high") + râni verbal noun of rândan "to push, drive, cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").