An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 458
lamp
  لامپ، چراغ   
lâmp (#), cerâq (#)

Fr.: lampe   

Any of various devices producing artificial light, as by electricity, gas, or oil.

From O.Fr. lampe, from L. lampas, from Gk. lampas "torch, lamp, beacon, meteor, light," from lampein "to shine," from PIE base *lap- "to shine" (cf. Lith. lope "light," O.Ir. lassar "flame").

Lâmp, loanword from Fr., as above.
Cerâq "lamp" (variants Kurd. cira, cerâh, Laki cerâx, Zâzâ cərâ, cərâx "lamp, candle," Shughni cirow, cirâw, cərêγ "candle, lamp"); Mid.Pers. cirâq "lamp," related to foruq "light," afruxtan "to light, kindle," rowšan "bright, clear," rowzan "window, aperture;" ruz "day;" Mid.Pers. rôšn "light; bright, luminous," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-rocânak "window;" O.Pers. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant;" akin to Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining," roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); Fr. lumière; E. light; O.E. leoht, leht, from W.Gmc. *leukhtam (cf. O.Fris. liacht, M.Du. lucht, Ger. Licht), from PIE *leuk- "light, brightness."

land
  خشکی، زمین   
xoški (#), zamin (#)

Fr.: terre   

Any part of the earth's surface not covered by a body of water.

M.E., from O.E. land, lond, "ground, soil, territory;" PIE base *lendh- "land, heath" (cf. O.N., O.Fris. Du., Ger., Goth. land; O.Ir. land; Welsh llan "enclosure, church," Breton lann "heath," source of Fr. lande; O.C.S. ledina "waste land, heath," Czech lada "fallow land").

Xoški, from xošk, → dry, + noun suffix -i; zamin "land, → earth."

land breeze
  نسیم ِ خشکی   
nasim-e xoški (#)

Fr.: brise de terre   

A coastal breeze blowing from land to sea after sunset, caused by the temperature difference when the sea surface is warmer than the adjacent land. The warmer air above the water continues to rise, and cooler air from over the land replaces it, creating a breeze.

Land, → lander; → breeze.

Xoški "land," from xošk "dry;" Mid.Pers. xušk "dry;" O.Pers. uška- "mainland;" Av. huška- "dry;" cf. Skt. śuska- "dry, dried out;" Gk. auos "dry, dried up;" O.E. sēar "dried up, withered;" Lith. sausas "dry, barren."

Landau damping
  میرایی ِ لانداؤ   
mirâyi-ye Landau

Fr.: amortissement de Landau   

The process wherein a → plasma gains energy at the expense of the → Langmuir wave. In the presence of the → Landau resonance, the particles in resonance moving slightly faster than the wave lose energy, while those moving slightly slower will gain energy. Since the Maxwellian distribution is decreasing with velocity, in a Maxwellian plasma, near the Landau resonance, there are more particles at lower velocities than at higher velocities. Also called collisionless damping.

Lev Landau (1908-1968), a prominent Soviet physicist, 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of a mathematical theory of → superfluidity; → damping.

Landau level
  تراز ِ لانداؤ   
tarâz-e Landau

Fr.: niveau de Landau   

The → energy level which can be occupied by a → free electron in a → magnetic field.

Landau damping; → level.

Landau resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لانداؤ   
bâzâvâyi-ye Landau

Fr.: résonance de Landau   

For parallel propagating → electrostatic waves in a → plasma, the → resonance which occurs when the particle velocity equals the parallel phase velocity of the wave.

Landau damping; → damping.

Landé factor
  کروند ِ لانده   
karvand-e Landé

Fr.: facteur de Landé   

The constant of proportionality relating the separations of lines of successive pairs of adjacent components of the levels of a spectral multiplet to the larger of the two J-values for the respective pairs. The interval between two successive components J and J + 1 is proportional to J + 1.

After Alfred Landé (1888-1976), a German-American physicist, known for his contributions to quantum theory; → facteur.

lander
  زمین‌نشین   
zamin-nešin

Fr.: atterrisseur   

A → space probe designed to land on a → planet or other solid → celestial body.

land; → -er.

Lane-Emden equation
  هموگش ِ لین-امدن   
hamugeš-e Lane-Emden

Fr.: équation de Lane-Emden   

A second-order nonlinear → differential equation that gives the structure of a → polytrope of index n.

Named after the American astrophysicist Jonathan Homer Lane (1819-1880) and the Swiss astrophysicist Robert Emden (1862-1940); → equation

Langevin equation
  هموگش ِ لانژون   
hamugeš-e Langevin

Fr.: équation de Langevin   

Equation of motion for a weakly ionized cold plasma.

Paul Langevin (1872-1946), French physicist, who developed the theory of magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic gas; → equation.

Langmuir wave
  موج ِ لانگموییر   
mowj-e Langmuir

Fr.: onde de Langmuir   

A disturbance of a → plasma in the form of a longitudinal, → electrostatic wave that propagates in the plasma due to variations in the plasma's electron density. More specifically, Langmuir waves are collective oscillations of inhomogeneous bunches of electrons displaced from their natural equilibrium, in which the inertia of the relatively massive ions serves to establish an electrostatic restoring force that tries to bring the electrons back to their equilibrium positions. → Landau damping causes dissipation of Langmuir waves as the electrons are either accelerated or decelerated so as to be in resonance with the phase velocity of the waves themselves.

Irving Langmuir (1881-1957), American chemist and physicist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932; → wave.

language
  زبان   
zabân (#)

Fr.: langue   

Any means of conveying or communicating ideas; specifically, human speech.

M.E., from O.Fr. langage, from L. lingua "tongue; speech, language."

Zabân "tongue; language," from Mid.Pers. uzwân "tongue; language;" O.Pers. hzanm, hizânam "tongue," Av. hizuua-, hizū- "tongue;" cf. Skt. jivhā- "tongue;" L. lingua "tongue, speech, language;" O.Ir. tenge; Welsh tafod; Lith. liezuvis; O.C.S. jezyku; M.Du. tonghe; Du. tong; O.H.G. zunga; Ger. Zunge; Goth. tuggo; PIE base *dnghwa-.

language paleontology
  پارین‌شناسی ِ زبانی   
pârinšenâsi-ye zabâni

Fr.: paléontologie linguistique   

An approach in which terms reconstructed in the → proto-language are used to make inferences about its speakers' culture and environment.

language;→ paleontology.

Laniakea supercluster
  ابرخوشه‌ی ِ لانیاکءا   
abarxuše-ye Laniakea

Fr.: superamas Laniakea   

A → supercluster of galaxies that includes our → Local Group and about 300 to 500 known → galaxy clusters and groups. Also called → Local Supercluster. If approximated as round, it has a diameter of 12,000 km s-1 in units of the → cosmic expansion or 160 megaparsecs, and encompasses about 1017 → solar masses. Our Local Group lies toward the outer regions of Laniakea. Its main components are the four previously known superclusters: → Virgo supercluster (the part where the → Milky Way resides), Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster (including the → Great Attractor, Antlia Wall, known as Hydra Supercluster, → Centaurus supercluster), Pavo-Indus Supercluster, and Southern Supercluster (including Fornax Cluster, Dorado and Eridanus clouds). The most massive galaxy clusters of Laniakea are Virgo, Hydra, Centaurus, Abell 3565, Abell 3574, Abell 3521, Fornax, Eridanus, and Norma. The Laniakea supercluster was discovered by Tully et al. (2014, Nature 513, 71).

From the Hawaiian words lani "heaven," and akea "spacious, immeasurable;" → supercluster.

lanthanide
  لانتانید   
lântânid (#)

Fr.: lanthanide   

Any of the series of 15 consecutive → chemical elements in the → periodic table from → lanthanum to lutetium (→ atomic numbers 57 to 71 inclusive). The atoms of these metals have similar configurations and similar physical and chemical properties. They are grouped apart from the rest of the elements in the → Periodic Table because they all behave in a similar way in chemical reactions. Also called → rare-earth element. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry currently recommends the name lanthanoid rather than lanthanide.

From the chemical element → lanthanum.

lanthanum (La)
  لانتانوم   
lântânom (#)

Fr.: lanthanum   

A soft, malleable, ductile, silver-white metallic → chemical element; symbol La. → atomic number 57; → atomic weight 138.9055; → melting point about 920°C; → boiling point about 3,460°C; → specific gravity 6.19 at 25°C; → valence +3. Lanthanum is a member of the → lanthanide group, also called → rare-earth elements. Two naturally occurring → isotopes of lanthanum are known, 139La (more than 99%) and 138La (less than 0.1%). The → half-life of 138La is 1.1 x 1011 years.

From lanthan- + suffix -um, variant of → -ium. The first component from Gk. lanthanein for "to lie hidden, to escape notice" because it hid in cerium ore and was difficult to separate from that rare-earth mineral. It was discovered in the form lanthanium oxide, called lanthana, by the Swedish surgeon and chemist Carl-Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) in 1839. Subsequently, in 1842, Mosander separated his lanthanium sample into two oxides; for one of these he retained the name lanthanum and for the other he gave the name didymium (or twin).

Laplace
  لاپلاس   
Laplace

Fr.: Laplace   

The French great mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Pierre-Simon Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827). → Laplace operator; → Laplace plane; → Laplace resonance; → Laplace transform; → Laplace's demon ; → Laplace's equation ; → Kant-Laplace hypothesis

Laplace operator
  آپارگر ِ لاپلاس   
âpârgar-e Laplace

Fr.: opérateur de Laplace   

Same as → Laplacian.

Laplace; → operator.

Laplace plane
  هامن ِ لاپلاس   
hâmon-e Laplace

Fr.: plan de Laplace   

The plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellite's orbit → precesses. In his study of Jupiter's satellites, Laplace (1805) recognized that the combined effects of the solar tide and the planet's oblateness induced a "proper" inclination in satellite orbits with respect to Jupiter's equator. He remarked that this proper inclination increases with the distance to the planet, and defined an orbital plane (currently called Laplace plane) for circular orbits that lies between the orbital plane of the planet's motion around the Sun and its equator plane (Tremaine et al., 2009, AJ, 137, 3706).

Laplace; → plane.

Laplace resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لاپلاس   
bâzâvâyi-ye Laplace

Fr.: résonance de Laplace   

An → orbital resonance that makes a 4:2:1 period ratio among three bodies in orbit. The → Galilean satellites → Io, → Europa, → Ganymede are in the Laplace resonance that keeps their orbits elliptical. This interaction prevents the orbits of the satellites from becoming perfectly circular (due to tidal interactions with Jupiter), and therefore permits → tidal heating of Io and Europa. For every four orbits of Io, Europa orbits twice and Ganymede orbits once. Io cannot keep one side exactly facing Jupiter and with the varying strengths of the tides because of its elliptical orbit, Io is stretched and twisted over short time periods.

This commensurability was first pointed out by Pierre-Simon Laplace, → Laplace; → resonance.

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