An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 464
low-energy neutrino
  نوترینو‌ی ِ کم‌کاروژ   
notrino-ye kamkâruž

Fr.: neutrino faible énergie   

A neutrino which is mainly produced in → nuclear processes, such as the ones in the → Sun (→ solar neutrino), or in the center of an exploding → supernova. Such neutrinos are, however, more energetic than those making up the → cosmic neutrino background.

low; → energy; → neutrino.

low-ionization line
  خط ِ کم‌یونش   
xatt-e kamyoneš (#)

Fr.: raie de faible ionisation   

A spectral line arising from a transition between atomic levels with an ionization potential below approximately 15 electron-volts.

low; → ionization; → line.

low-ionization nuclear emission-line region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ هسته‌ای با خط ِ گسیلی ِ کم‌یونش   
nâhiye-ye hasteyi bâ xatt-e gosili-ye kamyoneš (#)

Fr.: Noyau de galaxie à raies d'émission de faible ionisation   

Same as → LINER.

low; → ionization; → nuclear; → emission; → line; → region.

low-loss fiber
  فیبر ِ کم‌دسترفت   
fibr-e kamdastraft

Fr.: fibre à faible perte   

Optical fiber that transmits a greater percentage of input light than does high-loss step-index fiber.

low; → loss; → fiber.

low-mass galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کم‌جرم   
kahkešân-e kamjerm

Fr.: galaxie de faible masse   

A galaxy with stellar masses ≤ 109 → solar masses (Dawn K. Erb, 2015, Nature, 9 July).

low; → mass; → galaxy.

low-mass star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کم‌جرم   
setâre-ye kamjerm (#)

Fr.: étoile de faible masse   

A star whose mass is around that of the Sun. See also: → intermediate-mass star; → high-mass star; → star formation.

low; → mass; → star.

low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB)
  درین ِ پرتو ایکس ِ کم‌جرم   
dorin-e partow-e iks-e kam-jerm

Fr.: binaire X de faible masse   

A member of one of the two main classes of → X-ray binary systems where one of the components is a → neutron star or → black hole and the other component a → low-mass star with a spectral type A or later. LMXBs mainly emit → soft X-rays. The ratio of their optical to X-ray luminosities is less than 0.1. They belong to → old stellar populations with ages 5-15 × 109 years and are found in → globular clusters and in the → bulge of our → Milky Way galaxy; some are also found in the disk. Hercules X-1 is an example of LMXBs.
See also: → high-mass X-ray binary.

low; → mass; → X-ray; → binary.

low-metallicity environment
  پرگیر ِ کم‌فلز   
pargir-e kamfelez

Fr.: environnement faible en métaux   

A medium in which chemical elements have abundances smaller than the solar values.

low; → metallicity; → environment.

lower
  زیرین   
zirin (#)

Fr.: inférieur   

Relatively low in position, rank, or order.

Comparative of → low.

lower atmosphere
  هواسپهر ِ زیرین، جو ِ ~   
havâsepehr-e zirin, javv-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère inférieure   

Generally and quite loosely, that part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena occur (i.e., the → troposphere and lower → stratosphere); hence used in contrast to the common meaning for the → upper atmosphere. In other contexts, the term implies the lower troposphere (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

lower; → atmosphere.

lower culmination
  بالست ِ زیرین   
bâlest-e zirin

Fr.: culmination inférieure   

The instant of culmination when the star passes between the pole and the horizon, having an hour angle of 12h. Lower culmination for non-circumpolar objects occur below the horizon and is thus unobservable. Same as → inferior culmination. See also → upper culmination.

lower; → culmination.

lower mantle
  گوشته‌ی ِ زیرین   
gušte-ye zirin

Fr.: manteau inférieur   

The part of the Earth's → mantle extending from about 660 km below the surface to above the → outer core at about 2,900 km.

lower; → mantle.

LS coupling
  جفتش ِ LS، جفسری ِ ~   
jofteš-e LS, jafsari-ye ~

Fr.: couplage LS   

Same as → Russell-Saunders coupling.

L referring to the total → orbital angular momentum and S to the total → spin angular momentum; → coupling.

lukewarm
  ولرم   
velarm (#)

Fr.: tiède   

Moderately warm; tepid.

M.E. lukewarme "tepid," from luke "tepid," of unknown origin, + → warm.

Velarm "lukewarm, tepid," of unknown origin.

lumen
  لومن   
lumen (#)

Fr.: lumen   

The SI unit of luminous flux, equal to the luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle by a standard point source having a luminous intensity of 1 candela. → candela.

L. lumen (gen. luminis) "light," from lucere "to shine," related to lux "light," lucidus "clear," luna, "moon;" Fr. lumière "light;" cf. Pers. ruz "day," rowšan "bright, clear," rowzan "window, aperture;" foruq "light," afruxtan "to light, kindle;" Mid.Pers. rôšn "light; bright, luminous," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-rocânak "window;" O.Pers. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant;" akin to Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining," roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" O.E. leoht, leht, from W.Gmc. *leukhtam (cf. O.Fris. liacht, M.Du. lucht, Ger. Licht), from PIE *leuk- "light, brightness."

Lumen loanword, as above.

luminance
  تابانی   
tâbâni (#)

Fr.: luminance   

The luminous intensity in a given direction of a small element of surface area divided by the orthogonal projection of this area onto a plane at right angle to the direction. It is measured in candelas per square meter. Luminance is often called surface brightness of the object.

From lumin-, combining form of → lumen "light," + -ance a suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives in -ant or from verbs.

Tâbâni, from tâbidan "to shine," → luminous.

luminescence
  فروزستی   
foruzesti

Fr.: luminescence   

The emission of light not caused by high temperature (→ incandescence). → Fluorescence and → phosphorescence are particular cases of luminescence.

From lumin-, from → lumen; → -escence.

luminescent
  فروزست   
foruzest

Fr.: luminescent   

Capable of, suitable for, or exhibiting luminescence.

From lumin-, from → lumen; → -escent.

luminosity
  تابندگی   
tâbandegi (#)

Fr.: luminosité   

The → total → brightness of a star or other astronomical object. It is expressed in watts and represents the total amount of → energy that the object radiates each → second over all wavelength regions of the → electromagnetic spectrum. Because this quantity is independent of distance, it is an → intrinsic brightness.
See also:
absolute luminosity, → anomalous luminosity effect, → bolometric luminosity, → color-luminosity diagram, → Eddington luminosity, → H II region luminosity, → intrinsic luminosity, → luminosity class, → luminosity distance, → luminosity function, → luminosity problem, → mass-luminosity ratio, → mass-luminosity relation, → peak luminosity, → period-luminosity relation, → solar luminosity, → stellar luminosity, → wind luminosity.

Verbal noun of → luminous.

luminosity class
  رده‌ی ِ تابندگی   
rade-ye tâbandegi (#)

Fr.: classe de luminosité   

A classification of stellar spectra according to luminosity for a given → spectral type. The luminosity class is an indication of a star's → surface gravity. It is shown by a Roman numeral as follows: I (→ supergiants), II (bright → giants), III (normal giants), IV (→ subgiants), and V (→ dwarf stars, or → main-sequence stars). Luminosity classes VI (→ subdwarfs) and VII (→ white dwarfs) are rarely used. Subclasses a, b, and c are especially used for supergiants, while the most luminous → hypergiants are assigned luminosity class Ia-0.

luminosity; → class.

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