# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

Homepage

Number of Results: 13176 Search : in
 Keplerian   کپلری   KepleriFr.: keplerien   Of or pertaining to Johannes Kepler or to his works or discoveries.From → Kepler + -ian a suffix forming adjectives. Keplerian angular velocity   تندای ِ زاویه‌ای ِ کپلری   tondâ-ye zâviye-yi-ye KepleriFr.: vitesse angulaire keplérienne   The angular velocity of a point in a circular orbit around a central mass. It is given by: ΩK = (GM/r3)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the gravitating object, and r is the radius of the orbit of the point around the object.→ Keplerian; → angular; → velocity. Keplerian disk   گرده‌ی ِ کپلری، دیسک ِ ~   gerde-ye Kepleri, disk-e ~Fr.: disque keplérien   A circumstellar disk (such as an → accretion disk or a → protoplanetary disk) in which the → angular velocity at each radius is equal to the angular velocity of a circular → Keplerian orbit at the same radius. The main characteristic of the Keplerian disk is that → orbital velocity varies as r-1/2. This means that an object on an orbit closer to the central mass turns more rapidly than that on a farther orbit. This velocity difference is at the origin of internal friction or kinematic viscous forces between disk particles, which heats up the material.→ Keplerian; → disk. Keplerian orbit   مدار ِ کپلری   madâr-e Kepleri (#)Fr.: orbit keplérienne   The orbit of a spherical object of a finite mass around another spherical object, also of finite mass, governed by their mutual → gravitational forces only.→ Keplerian; → orbit. Keplerian orbital velocity   تندای ِ مدار ِ کپلری   tondâ-ye madâr-e KepleriFr.: vitesse d'orbite képlérienne   The velocity of an object orbiting another object according to → Kepler's laws.→ Keplerian; → orbital; → velocity. Keplerian rotation curve   خم ِ چرخش ِ کپلری   xam-e carxeš-e Kepleri (#)Fr.: courbe de rotation keplérienne   A → rotation curve in which the speed of the orbiting body is inversely proportional to the → square root of its distance from the mass concentrated at the center of the system.→ Keplerian; → rotation; → curve. Keplerian shear   کرن ِ کپلری   karn-e KepleriFr.: cisaillement keplerien   Shearing motion of an ensemble of particles, each on a nearly circular, → Keplerian orbit. → Orbital velocity decreases as orbital radius increases, yielding shear. Viscous drag on such shear, due to ring-particle collisions, plays a key role in ring processes (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).→ Keplerian; → shear. Keplerian telescope   دوربین ِ کپلر، تلسکوپ ِ ~   durbin-e Kepler, teleskop-e ~ (#)Fr.: télescope de Kepler   A → refracting telescope which has simple → convex lenses for both → objective and → eyepiece. It suffers from → chromatic aberration, which can be reduced by increasing the → focal ratio. It was first devised by Kepler in 1615.→ Keplerian; → telescope. Kerberos   کربروس   KerberosFr.: Kerberos   The fourth → natural satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2011 using the → Hubble Space Telescope. Also called Pluto IV (P4). It has an estimated diameter of 14-44 km, which makes it the second smallest known moon of Pluto after → Styx. Kerberos revolves around Pluto in the region between → Nix and → Hydra at a distance of about 58,000 km and makes a complete orbit roughly every 32.1 days.Named after the three-headed dog of Greek mythology. kernel   ا َستل   astelFr.: noyau   1) Chemistry: The remainder of an atom after the valence electrons have been removed. 2a) Math.: 1) The set of elements that a given function from one set to a second set maps into the identity of the second set. 2b) Let A be a linear transformation of the vector space U into the vector space V . The collection of all those vectors x in U such that Ax = 0 is called the kernel of A and is denoted by ker(A). 3) Computers: The set of functions that make up the operating system, the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system. → core = maqzé (مغزه); → nucleus = hasté (هسته).Kernel, from M.E. kirnel, from O.E. cyrnel, from P.Gmc. *kurnilo- (cf. M.H.G. kornel, M.Du. cornel), from *kernan- (root of corn "seed, grain"), akin to L. granium, + -el, diminutive suffix, variant of → -al.Astel, from asté "kernel, fruit stone," variants hasté, ostoxân "bone," from Mid.Pers. astak "fruit stone, bone," ast "bone;" Av. ast- "bone;" cf. Skt. asthi- "bone;" Gk. osteon; L. os; Hittite hashtai-; PIE base *os- + Pers. diminutive suffix -el→ -al. Kerr black hole   سیه‌چال ِ کر   siyah câl-e Kerr (#)Fr.: trou noir de Kerr   A → black hole that possesses only mass (not electric charge) and rotates about a central axis. It has an → ergosphere and a → stationary limit.Named after the New Zealand mathematician Roy P. Kerr (1934-) who, in 1963, was the first to solve the → field equationss of Einstein's theory of → general relativity for a situation of this kind; → black hole. Kerr-Newman black hole   سیه‌چال ِ کر-نیومن   siyah câl-e Kerr-NewmanFr.: trou noir de Kerr-Newman   A rotating charged black hole. Compare with the → Kerr black hole and the → Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.Named after Roy P. Kerr and Ezra T. Newman (1929-) who in 1963 independently found this solution to Einstein's → field equations; → black; → hole. Kerwan   کروان   KerwanFr.: Kerwan   The largest → impact cratrer on → Ceres, which has a diameter of about 280 km. It is distinctly shallow for its size.Named for The crater is named after the Hopi spirit of sprouting maize, Kerwan. The name was approved by the IAU on July 3, 2015.[1] ket   کت   ketFr.: ket   In Dirac's notation, a vector which describes the state of a quantum system, whether it is in a space of finite or infinite dimensions. A ket vector, written as | A >, is the dual of the → bra. Like the bra, it appears as an incomplete → bracket expression.From -ket the second syllable in → bracket. keV    keV   keVFr.: keV   Kilo (thousand) → electron volt. A unit of → energy used to describe the total energy carried by a → particle or → photon.→ kilo- + → electron volt. key   کلید   kelid (#)Fr.: clé   A usually metal instrument used to operate a lock's mechanism.M.E. key(e), kay(e), O.E. cæg "key," of unknown origin,Kelid, variants (Tabari) kali, (Lori) kelil, (Laki) kalil "key; lock," (Kurd) kilil, kolun "latch, bolt;" Mid.Pers. kilêl "key." See also → include. keyhole   سوراخ ِ کلید   surâx-e kelid (#)Fr.: trou de serrure   1) The hole in which a key of a lock is inserted. 2) → Keyhole Nebula. 3) A small, about 600 m wide, region of space close to the Earth where the Earth's gravity would perturb the trajectory of a passing → Near-Earth Object. The object will receive a gravitational push that will bring it back for a collision in the future. Also called resonance keyhole.→ key; → hole. Keyhole Nebula   میغ ِ سوراخ ِ کلید   miq-e surâx-e kelidFr.: Nébuleuse du Trou de Serrure   A relatively small and dark cloud of molecules and dust seen silhouetted against the much brighter → Carina Nebula. It contains bright filaments of emitting hot gas and is roughly 7 → light-years in size.→ keyhole; → nebula. The name was given by the English astronomer Sir John Herschel in the 19th century, because of the appearance of the nebula in low-resolution telescopes of that epoch. Kiel diagram   نمودار ِ کیل   nemudâr-e KielFr.: diagramme de Kiel   A version of the → H-R diagram displaying stellar gravities (→ gravity, log g) against the corresponding → effective temperatures (Teff).Named after the group of astrophysicists (W.-R. Hamann, W. Schmutz, U. Wessolowski) working at Kiel University (Germany), who introduced the diagram in 1980s; → diagram. Killing vector   بردار ِ کیلینگ   bordâr-e KillingFr.: vecteur de Killing   A → vector field on a → Riemannian manifold (or → pseudo-Riemannian manifold) that preserves the → metric. In other words, the → derivative of the metric with respect to this vector field is null.Named after the German mathematician Wilhelm Killing (1847-1923); → vector.