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A → quantum field theory of the → interaction of → quarks possessing a distinctive property called → color, in which the quarks exchange → gluons in a manner that is analogous to the interaction of → charged particles in → electrodynamics.
fâmsepehr (#), ranginsepehr (#)
A region of the stellar atmosphere situated above its → photosphere. The Sun's chromosphere extends from the about 500 km above the photosphere basis, up to 9,000 km, where it meets the → corona. For a plane-parallel model, the chromosphere is more or less continuous throughout the first 1,500 km, but breaks into indented spicules beyond that height. The chromosphere temperature grows from 4,400 K at 500 km to almost 6,000 K at 1,000-2,000 km. A rapid growth of coronal temperatures is registered at heights of about 2,500 km (the transition region), the exact height depending on the local magnetic field intensity. Actually, the chromosphere is made of rising and, often, falling jets called → spicules, which go up to 15,000 km. In the uppermost part of the chromosphere the density is the millionth part of its density at the base. Immediately before or after a solar → total eclipse, the chromosphere becomes visible either as a crescent or as a red → diamond ring, due to → H-alpha emission, from which it also gets its name. Moreover, the chromosphere can be seen in → H and K lines of calcium during eclipses, and in ultraviolet emission lines from space. The presence of the chromosphere around cold → dwarf stars is deduced from similar emissions (M.S.: SDE).
A very accurate instrument that measures, indicates, or graphically records time intervals such as the duration of an event.
Chronograph, from Gk. khronos "time" + → -graph.
Gâhnegâr, from gâh "time" + negâr, → -graph.
The science of dating, of ordering time, of arranging in periods, and of determining temporal distances between past events.
Chronology, from Gk. khronos "time" + → -logy.
Gâhšenâsi, from gâh "time" + -šenâsi, → -logy. Gâhrâik, from gâh + rây, ârâ "order, arrangement" stem of ârâstan "to arrange, to set in order, adorn" (Mid.Pers. ârây-, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn," O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line") + -ik, → -ics.
gâhsanj (#), zamânsanj (#)
A highly precise timepiece.
Chronometer, from from Gk. khronos "time" + → -meter.
Gâhsanj, zamânsanj, from gâh or zamân "time" + -sanj→ -meter.
1) gavis; 2) gavisidan
Fr.: 1) baratte; 2) baratter
1) A container or machine in which cream or milk is agitated to make butter.
M.E. chirne, O.E. cyrne cyr(i)n; cognate with M.L.G. kerne, O.N. kjarni, kirna, may be related to → kernel because of the "grainy" appearance of churned cream.
Gavis "churn," of unknown origin.
In → galactic dynamics models, the process of gaining or losing → angular momentum by stars mostly at the → Lindblad resonances without gaining random motion. Figuratively, transient → spiral waves in → galactic disks churn the stars and gas in a manner that largely preserves the overall angular momentum distribution and leads to little increase in random motion. Churning is the main reason for → radial migration of stars. See also → blurring (J. A. Sellwood & J. J. Binney, 2002, astro-ph/0203510 and references therein).
Verbal noun of → churn.
Fr.: chondrite CI
A group of very rare → carbonaceous chondrites which are unusual because they do not have → chondrules. They are thought to be the most primitive of all meteorites. As a result of alteration, they lack chondrules and → CAIs, but contain up to 20% water, as well as various alteration minerals. Only five CI chondrite falls are known, and of these, only four are massive enough for multiple chemical analyses. The Orgueil meteorite is the most massive of CI chondrites.
From O.Fr. cinabre, from L. cinnabaris, from Gk. kinnabari, maybe ultimately from Pers. šangarf "red lead, cinnabar," of unknown origin.
Being, having, characterized by, or occurring in approximately 24-hour periods or cycles, as of biological activity or function (Merriam-Webster.com).
Fr.: rythme circardien
Any of several physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment. Circadian rhythms are found in most living things, including animals, plants and many tiny microbes.
The Compasses. A small, faint → constellation in the southern hemisphere near → Musca and → Triangulum Australe, at about 15h right ascension and 60° south declination. Abbreviation: Cir; genitive Circini.
L. circinus "pair of compasses," from circus "circle, ring," from or akin to Gk. kirkos "a circle," from PIE *kirk- from base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend" (from which derives also Pers. carx "wheel, cycle," → cycle).
Pargâr, → compasses.
parhun (#), dâyeré (#)
A closed curve lying in a plane and so constructed that all its points are equally distant from a fixed point in the plane.
From O.Fr. cercle, from L. circulus "small ring," dim. of circus "ring," from or akin to Gk. kirkos "a circle," from PIE *kirk- from base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend," related to Pers. carx "wheel, everything revolving in an orbit, circular motion, chariot."
Parhun "circle" in Mod.Pers. classical texts, from
Proto-Iranian *pari-iâhana- "girdle, belt," from
pari-, variant pirâ-, → circum-, +
iâhana- "to girdle," cf. Av. yâh- "to girdle."
The Pers. word pirâhan "shirt" is a variant of parhun.
Gk. cognate zone "girdle."
circle of altitude
circle of latitude
1) A circle of the celestial sphere, parallel to the ecliptic.
circle of longitude
1) A great circle of the celestial sphere, from the pole to the ecliptic
at right angles to the plane of the ecliptic.
gardrâh, barqrâh (#)
1) General: A closed, usually circular line that goes around an
object or area.
From O.Fr. circuit, from L. circuitus "a going around," from stem of circuire, circumire "go around," from circum "around," → circum- + -ire "to go" (cf. Gk. ienai "to go," Skt. eti "goes," O.Pers. aitiy "goes," Av. aeiti "goes," Mod.Pers. âyad "comes," PIE *ei- "to go, to walk."
Gardrâh, from gard "turning round, revolving,"
from gardidan "to turn, to change"
(Mid.Pers. vartitan, Av. varət- "to turn, revolve,"
Skt. vartati, L. vertere, O.H.G. werden "to become;"
PIE *werto, *wer-)
+ râh "way, path," from
Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street" (Mid.Pers. rah, ras "chariot"),
from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf.
Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot,"
rathyā- "road;" L. rota "wheel," rotare "to revolve, roll;"
Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad;
O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").
dâyere-yi (#), parhuni (#)
1) Having the form of a circle.
Dâyere-yi, parhuni, from dâyeré or parhun→ circle + -i adj. suffix.
circular magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye dâyere-yi
Fr.: champ magnétique circulaire
jonbeš-e dâyere-yi, ~ parhuni
Fr.: mouvement circulaire
Motion in which an object moves in a circle at a constant speed. The velocity, however, changes not because the magnitude of the velocity changes, but because its direction changes. The changing velocity creates an acceleration, called → centripetal acceleration. This acceleration results from the → centripetal force.