# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 normal   ۱) هنجارور، هنجارمند؛ ۲) هنجار   1) hanjârvar, hanjârmand; 2) hanjâr;Fr.: 1) normal; 2) normale   1) Conforming to the usual standard, type, custom; not abnormal; regular; natural. 2a) Math.: A perpendicular, particularly a line perpendicular to the tangent of a curve or curved surface at the point of contact of the tangent with the curve or the curved surface. See also → perpendicular; → vertical. 2b) Optics: A line drawn perpendicular to the surface of a reflecting or refracting medium.From L.L. normalis "standing at right angle, in conformity with rule," from L. normalis "made according to a carpenter's square," from norma "rule, pattern," literally "carpenter's square."Hanjârvar, hanjârmand, adjectives of hanjâr, → norm. normal dispersion   پاشش ِ هنجارمند   pâšeš-e hanjârmandFr.: dispersion normale   The dispersion in which a shorter wavelength is associated with a higher → refractive index. Contrasted with the → anomalous dispersion.→ normal; → dispersion. normal distribution   واباژش ِ هنجارور   vâbâžeš-e hanjârvarFr.: distribution normale   A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean. Same as → Gaussian distribution.→ normal; → distribution. normal state   حالت ِ هنجارور   hâlat-e hanjârvarFr.: état fondamental   Of an atom, the same as → ground state.→ normal; → state. normality   هنجاروری   hanjârvariFr.: normalité   General: The fact or condition of being normal. Chemistry: Measure of the number of gram-equivalent weights of a compound per liter of solution.From → normal + → -ity. normalization   هنجارورش   hanjârvarešFr.: normalisation   1) A mathematical technique for adjusting a series of values (typically representing a set of measurements) according to some transformation function in order to make them comparable with some specific point of reference. 2) Process of introducing a numerical factor into an equation so that the area under the corresponding graph (if finite) shall be made equal to unity. 3) To change in scale so that the sum of squares or the integral of squares of the transformed quantity is zero.Verbal noun of → normalize. normalize   هنجاروریدن، هنجارور کردن   hanjârvaridan, hanjârvar kardanFr.: normaliser   To change in scale so that the sum of squares, or the integral of the square, of the transformed quantity is unity.→ normal + → -ize. normalized   هنجاروریده، هنجارور شده   hanjârvaridé, hanjârver šodéFr.: normalisé   The quality of something that has undergone → normalization.P.p. of → normalize. normalized Hubble parameter   پارامون ِ هابل ِ هنجاروریده   pârâmun-e Hubble-e hanjârvaridéFr.: paramètre Hubble normalisé   A dimensionless parameter expressed by h(z) = H(z)/H0, where H(z) is the → Hubble parameter at → redshift z and H0 is the → Hubble constant.→ normalized; → Hubble; → parameter. north   هودر   hudarFr.: nord   The → cardinal point at which the → meridian cuts the → horizon below the → north celestial pole.M.E., O.E. norð, from P.Gmc. *nurtha- (cf. O.N. norðr, M.Du. nort, Du. noord, Ger. nord), ultimately from PIE *ner- "left, below."Note: North is related to left since it is to the left when one faces the rising Sun. This occurs in, for example, the etymology of E. north, as above. The same goes for Ar. shimal, which also means "left." Hudar, from hu(y), from Mid.Pers. hôy "left, left hand," from Av. haoiia- "left" (cf. Skt. savyá- "left hand;" O.C.S. šuji; Rus. šuj; Welsh aswy; PIE *seujos) + -dar, from -tar direction suffix, as in Mid.Pers. ošastar "east" (Av. ušastara- "easthern"), dôšastar "west" (Av. daôšatara-, daôšastara- "western"), abâxtar "north" (Av. apāxtara- "northern"), Mod.Pers. bâxtar, → west. North America Nebula   میغ ِ آمریکای ِ هودری   miq-e Âmrikâ-ye hudariFr.: Nébuleuse de l'Amérique du Nord   An → H II region in → Cygnus, also known as NGC 7000, resembling the continent North America in long exposure images. This nebula is lying three degrees from bright star → Deneb and spans on the sky over four times the angular size of the full Moon. A dark lane separates the North America Nebula from the → Pelican Nebula, actually part of the same enormous cloud some 2,000 → light-years away.It was first photographed in 1890 by Max Wolf (1863-1932), a German astronomer, who also first called it the North America Nebula because of its resemblance to the Earth's continent. America, from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512), who made two trips to the New World as a navigator and claimed to have discovered it. The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil; → nebula. north celestial pole   قطب ِ آسمانی ِ هودر   qotb-e âsmâni-ye hudarFr.: pôle nord céleste   The point in the → northern hemisphere where the → rotation axis of Earth touches the → celestial sphere. The star → Polaris, also called the Pole Star, is located very near this point, at an angular separation of 42 degrees (about 1.4 lunar diameters).→ north; → celestial; → pole. North point   نقطه‌ی ِ هودر   noqte-ye hudarFr.: point Nord   The point on → horizon in direction of → geographic north pole.→ north; → point. North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD)   لردهای ِ لایه-لایه‌ی ِ قطب ِ هودر   Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e HudarFr.: couches de dépôt du pôle nord   A large area of the north polar region of Mars which is covered with alternating layers of water ice and dust. → South Polar Layered Deposits.→ north; → polar; → layer; → deposit. North Polar Spur   شخاک ِ کهکشانی ِ هودری   šaxâk-e kahkešâni-ye hudariFr.: éperon galactique nord   One of the largest coherent structures in the radio sky, projecting from the → Galactic plane at → Galactic longitudel ~ 20° and extending to a very high → Galactic latitudeb ~ +80°. It was first identified in low frequency → radio surveys in the 1950s. The spur is also prominent in → soft X-rays. Its origins and nature have long been debated. However, what causes this phenomena is not well understood. It may be due to a combination of → OB associations and → supernova explosions.→ north; → polar; → spur. north pole   قطب ِ هودر   qotb-e hudarFr.: pôle nord   1) An → imaginary → point in the → northern hemisphere representing the intersection of the → Earth's → rotation axis with the → globe or with the → celestial sphere. 2) For a → magnet, the pole which points toward the geographic north. 3) In a → magnetic field, the point from where a → line of force is leaves for the → south pole.→ north; → pole. North Pole Star   ستاره‌ی ِ قطب ِ هودر   setâre-ye qotb-e hudarFr.: étoile du pole Nord   A star that lies on the → rotation axis of the Earth in the north hemisphere. The → Pole Star is not, in the long term, permanently fixed to the → celestial pole. This is because of the Earth's → axial precession which gradually moves the celestial poles in the sky. It takes about 26,000 years for the precession to turn the pole a full circuit. Currently the North Pole Star is → Polaris, which will continue to mark the north celestial pole for several more centuries. But, around 4,000 B.C. → Gamma Cephei will become the North Pole Star. Around 7,500 B.C., → Alderamin will take up the role. And it will be the brilliant → Vega's (Alpha Lyrae) turn in about 12,000 years. In the past, about 3,000 B.C., → Thuban (Alpha Draconis) was the North Pole Star. Then → Kokab (Beta Ursae Majoris) became the Pole Star from 1500 B.C. to 500 A.D. before leaving the task to Polaris.→ north; → pole; → star. North Star   ستاره‌ی ِ هودر   setâre-ye hudarFr.: étoile du Nord   → North Pole Star; → Polaris.→ north; → star. northern   هودری   hudariFr.: nord   1) Lying toward or situated in the → north. 2) North of the → celestial equator or of the → zodiac.M.E., from O.E. norþerna, norðerne "northern," from norð "northern" + + -erne, suffix denoting directionHudari, relating to hudar, → north. Northern Cross   چلیپای ِ هودری   calipâ-ye hudariFr.: Croix du Nord   An arrangement of stars in the form of a cross in the constellation → Cygnus.→ north; → cross.