<< < -es -it -sc 201 951 abe abs abs aca acc acc aco act ada adh ado aer aft air Alf alg alk alp Alt alt amb ana And ang ani ann ant ant ant apo app app Apu arc arg Arn art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut avo azi bac bal bar bar bat Bea Bel bet bia big bin bio Bir bla bla blo Blu Bok boo bou box bre Bri bro bur cal cal Can cap car Car cat cau cel cen cen cha Cha cha che Chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor Cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D l dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg Del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra Dsc dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ eru eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gam gau Gau gen geo geo geo geo Gib glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gui H-a hal Ham har Hay hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig hoa hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jab jet Jov Jup Kar Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal map mas mas mat Mau mea mea med Men mer Mes met met MHD mic mid mil min mir mix mod mol mom moo mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove Owl P-s Pal par par par par Pas pat pec pen per per per per per Pha pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pub pul pyc qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur S5- Sal sat sca sca sch sci Scu sec sec sed sel sel sem seq set sha she sho sid sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sti sto str str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit too Tor tra tra Tra tra Tra tri Tri tru tub tur two Typ ult ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver Ver vie vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>
In astronomy, the measurement of the light of astronomical objects, generally in the visible or infrared bands, in which a wavelength band is normally specified.
Electronic tube which converts photons into electrons, multiplies the electrons via a series of electrodes, and produces a measurable current from a very small input signal.
The → quantum of the → electromagnetic field, which mediates the interaction between charged particles. It is the mass-less → boson with zero → electric charge, which propagates with the → speed of light in vacuum. The energy of a photon is connected to its → frequency ν, through the formula E = hν, where h is → Planck's constant.
From phot-, variant of → photo- before a vowel + → -on a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles (gluon; meson; neutron), quanta (photon, graviton), and other minimal entities or components. The term photon was coined by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926 in a letter to the editor of Nature magazine (Vol. 118, Part 2, December 18, page 874).
photon escape time
zamân-e goriz-e foton
Fr.: temps d'échappement des photons
The time required for a photon created in the Sun's core to attain the → photosphere and leave the Sun. If the photons were free to escape, they would take a time of only R/c (a couple of seconds) to reach the surface, where R is the Solar radius and c the speed of light. The solar material is, however, very opaque, so that photons travel only a short distance before interacting with other particles. Therefore, photons undergo a very large number of → random walks before arriving at the surface by chance. The typical time is approximately 5 x 104 years for a constant density Sun.
Fr.: gaz de photons
→ Electromagnetic radiation in equilibrium in a → black body cavity. Photons can be treated as the simplest → ideal gas because all the particles move at the same velocity, the → speed of light. There are, nevertheless, two main differences. 1) Photons are → bosons and → Bose-Einstein statistics must be used. However, photons do not interact with each others so that no approximation is made by neglecting inter-particle forces. 2) Some photons scatter off the walls, with some being absorbed and new ones being emitted continually; so that no constraint can be placed on their number.
Fr.: durcissement des photons
An effect occurring in the outer zones of → H II regions where the number of high-energy ultraviolet photons with energies well above the → ionization potential of hydrogen increases with respect to the number of → Lyman continuum photons. The effect is due to stronger absorption of weaker photons.
Fr.: bruit de photons
An intrinsic noise caused by the quantum nature of light. Same as → quantum noise.
Fr.: sphère de photons
A surface where if a photon is emitted from one of its points the photon follows a closed orbit and returns periodically to its departure point. Such a surface exists only near sufficiently → compact objects where the → curvature of → space-time is very important. In other words, a body can take a stable orbit around a → black hole provided that it moves with the → speed of light. However, only photons can have such a velocity; hence the term "photon sphere." For a non-rotating → Schwarzschild black hole, the photon sphere has a radius of R = 3GM/c2 = 3 RS/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass, c is the → speed of light, and RS is the → Schwarzschild radius. For a rotating, → Kerr black hole, the situation is much more complex due to the → Lense-Thirring effect. In that case circular paths exist for radii whose values depend on the rotation direction. More specifically, in the equatorial plane there are two possible circular light paths: a smaller one in the direction of the rotation, and a larger one in the opposite direction.
photon tiring limit
hadd-e xastegi-ye foton
Fr.: limite par fatigue du photon
The maximum → mass loss rate of a star when the → wind luminosity equals the total available → stellar luminosity. The mechanical luminosity of the wind at infinity is given by: Lwind = Mdot (v∞2/2 + GM/R) = Mdot (v∞2/2 + vesc2/2). For Lwind = L*, the mass loss rate is Mdotmax = 2L*/(v∞2 + vesc2). Following Owoki & Gayly (1997), Mdottir is the maximum mass loss rate when the wind just escapes the gravitational potential, with v∞ tending toward zero. Mdottir is much larger than typical mass loss rates from → line-driven winds, where the driving lines become saturated with increasing density limiting the wind mass loss rates to about 10-4 Msun yr-1 in even the most luminous stars.
Fr.: plasma photon-baryon
The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems.
1) The visible surface of the Sun (temperature 5700 K), just below the
→ chromosphere and just above the
→ convective zone.
The solar photosphere is a thin layer of roughly 300 km wide.
Its temperature decreases uniformly with height,
from about 6,600 K (pressure 0.868
→ millibars) at its bottom, to about 4,400 K (pressure 125 mb),
where it merges with the chromosphere. The photosphere has a
"rice-grain" appearance, called
→ granulation, caused by rising (hot) and falling (cool)
material in the → convective cells just below the photosphere.
Other main features of the photosphere are → sunspots,
→ faculae, and → supergranulation.
Of or pertaining to a → photosphere.
The process in green plants, algae, diatoms, and certain forms of bacteria by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct.
Fr.: magnitude photovisuelle
Magnitude defined for the combination of a photographic plate and a yellow filter, approximating the spectral sensitivity of the eye.
Fr.: détecteur photovoltaÃ¯que
A detector usually constituted by a p-n junction. Upon irradiation, the electron-hole pairs which are created, are immediately separated by the strong electric field across the junction, and a current is generated, which is proportional to the number of incident photons per second.
Fr.: locution, expression
A sequence of two or more words arranged in a grammatical construction and acting as a unit in a → sentence.
From L.L. phrasis "diction," from Gk. phrasis "speech, way of speaking, enunciation," from phrazein "to express, tell," from phrazesthai "to consider."
Pertaining to the physical sciences, especially physics.
Fr.: adsorption physique
Same as → physisorption.
šimi-ye fiziki (#)
Fr.: chimie physique
The branch of chemistry dealing with the relations between the physical properties of substances and their chemical composition and transformations.