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A metric unit of volume, formerly defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water under standard conditions; now equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm3); hence 1 liter = 0.001 m3 and 1000 liter = 1 m3.
From Fr. litre, from litron, obsolete Fr. measure of capacity for grain, from M.L. litra, from Gk. litra "pound."
1) Writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of
permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential
features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays.
From L. literatura/litteratura "writing, grammar, learning," from litera/littera "letter."
Neveštârgân, from neveštâr, literally "written; writing," verbal noun from neveštan, nevis- "to write;" Mid.Pers. nibištan, nibes- "to write;" Av./O.Pers. nī- "down; in, into," → ni- (PIE), + paēs- "to paint; to adorn," paēsa- "adornment" (Mid.Pers. pēsīdan "to adorn"); O.Pers. pais- "to adorn, cut, engrave" (Mod.Pers. pisé "variegated"); cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled," + -gân suffix of suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag.
A metallic → chemical element; symbol Li.
→ Atomic number 3;
→ atomic weight 6.941;
→ melting point about 180.54°C;
→ boiling point about 1,342°C.
Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal. It is the lightest
metal and one of the alkali metals in Group 1 of the → periodic table.
Lithium does not occur on Earth in its free form. It is a minor
part of almost all igneous rocks and is found in many natural brines,
in total 0.0007% of the Earth's crust. It has two stable
→ isotopes, 7Li (92.5%) and 6Li (7.5%).
The element was discovered in the mineral
petalite, LiAl(Si2O5)2, by the Swedish mineralogist Johan August
Arfwedson in 1817. It was isolated by W.T. Brande and Sir Humphrey
Davy. Many uses have been found for lithium and its compounds. Lithium
has the highest → specific heat (3.6 J/gK)
of any solid element and is used in heat transfer applications. It is used in
rechargeable lithium ion batteries. It is also used as an alloy with
→ aluminum, → copper, and
→ manganese to make high performance aircraft parts. It is
used to make special glasses and ceramics, including the Mount Palomar
telescope's 5 m mirror. Lithium also has various nuclear applications,
for example as a coolant in nuclear breeder reactors and a source of
→ tritium, which is formed by bombarding lithium with neutrons. In
medicine it is used to treat bipolar disorder (manic depression), a
serious mental illness that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and
Lithium, from L. lithos "stone" because lithium was thought to exist only in minerals.
lithium I line
xatt-e litiom I
Fr.: raie de lithium I
setâre-ye litiomi (#)
Fr.: étoile à lithium
A peculiar evolved star of spectral type G or M whose spectrum displays a high abundance of lithium.
Fr.: test du lithium
The presence or not of the lithium absorption line at 6708 Å, which is considered to be a sufficient condition for → substellarity in → L dwarfs. It has been shown that any object with lithium absorption and → effective temperature less than 2670 K is a → brown dwarf. For a discussion of potential problems with the lithium test see Kirkpatrick et al. (1993, ApJ 406, 701).
A prefix meaning "stone," used in the formation of compound words.
From Gk. lithos "stone."
Lito-, loan from Gk., as above.
bonpâr-e sangdust, ~ litodust
Fr.: élément lithophile
In the → Goldschmidt classification, a → chemical element that shows an → affinity for → silicate phases and is concentrated in the silicate portion of the Earth (→ crust and → mantle). This group includes → lithium (Li), → beryllium (Be), → sodium (Na), → magnesium (Mg), → potassium (K), → calcium (Ca), → barium (Ba), → titanium (Ti), → chromium (Cr), → aluminium (Al), → silicon (Si), → phosphorus (P), → chlorine (Cl), etc.
sangsepehr (#), litosepehr
The solid portion of the → Earth, as compared to the → atmosphere and the → hydrosphere. The lithosphere consists of semi-rigid plates that move relative to each other on the underlying → asthenosphere. The process is known as → plate tectonics and helps explain → continental drift.
haft xâharân (#), camce-ye kucak (#)
Little, from M.E., O.E. lytel, from W.Gmc. *lutila- (cf. Du. luttel, O.H.G. luzzil, Ger. lützel, Goth. leitils), from PIE *leud- "small;" dipper, from dip, O.E. dyppan "immerse," from P.Gmc. *dupjanan.
Haft xâharân "the seven sisters," from haft "seven"
(Mid.Pers. haft; Av. hapta; cf. Skt. sapta; Gk. hepta;
L. septem; P.Gmc. *sebun; Du. zeven; O.H.G. sibun;
Ger. sieben; E. seven; PIE *septm)
+ xâharân plural of xâhar "sister;" Mid.Pers. xwâhar
"sister;" Av. xvanhar- "sister;" cf. Skt. svásar- "sister;"
Sogdian xwār; Gk. eor; L. soror (Fr. soeur);
O.C.S., Rus. sestra; Lith. sesuo; O.Ir. siur; Welsh chwaer;
M.Du. suster; Du. zuster; O.H.G. swester;
Goth. swistar; Ger. Schwester;
Swed. sister; Dan. søster;
O.E. sweostor, swuster; E. sister.
Little Ice Age
asr-e yax-e kucek
Fr.: petit âge glaciaire
A roughly 400-year period from the mid-16th through the mid-19th centuries when temperatures over much of Europe were unusually cold. Glaciers in the Alps advanced and European rivers froze much more often than during the past century. Harvests failed, livestock perished, and poor people suffered from famine and disease. The Little Ice Age coincided with two successive low → solar activity periods, the → Sporer minimum and the → Maunder minimum.
Fr.: prisme de Littrow
A prism having angles of 30, 60, and 90°, which uses the same face for input and dispersed radiation. The beam is reflected at the face opposite to the 60° angle because it is coated to be highly reflecting. A beam entering at the → Brewster angle undergoes minimum deviation and hence maximum dispersion. Littrow prisms are used in laser cavities to fine tune lasers by selection of wavelength.
Joseph Johann Littrow (1781-1840), Austrian astronomer; → prism.
âyene-ye Lloyd (#)
Fr.: miroir de Lloyd
An optical arrangement in which light from a source is allowed to fall on a plane mirror at → grazing incidence. The light directly coming from the source interferes with the light reflected from the mirror forming an → interference pattern. See also → Fresnel's biprism, → Fresnel's mirrors.
After the Irish physicist Humphry Lloyd (1800-1881); → mirror.
1) bâr; 2) bâr kardan (#)
Fr.: 1) charge; 2) charger
1) Something that is borne or carried.
From M.E. lode, originally the same word as lode, from O.E. lāad "way, course, carrying;" cf. O.N. leith "way, route," O.H.G. leita "procession."
Bâr kardan "to load," composite verb from bâr "load, charhe, burden," (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. base bar- "to bear, carry;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Gk. baros "weight;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy," *bher- "carry, give birth") + kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").
Verbal noun of → load.
Fr.: escarpe lobée
A surface feature on a planet or satellite in the form of a line of cliffs. Lobate scarps are formed when planetary or lunar mantle cools down and contracts inside. The loss of volume squeezes portions of the outer crust together. Eventually, the crust breaks and some of it is pushed up, creating long cliffs that look like wrinkles. Lunar scarps are generally tens of kilometers long and less than 100 m high. They have formed during the last billion years.
General: A roundish projection that is part of a larger structure.
From M.L. lobus, from L.L. lobus "hull, husk, pod," from Gk. lobos "lobe of the ear, vegetable pod," probably related to leberis "husk of fruits;" from PIE base *lep- "to peel, flay."
Lap "lobe," variants lâp, lâb "piece, big piece, big cut," lappé "split pea; any of the two parts of a timber split through the length," maybe cognate with Gk. lobos, as above. Alternatively, related to Pers. las "loose," PIE *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart" (cf. Gk. lyein "to loosen, untie, slacken," lysus "a loosening;" L. luere "to loose, release;" → analysis).
Fr.: fonction de lobe
The configuration of the response lobes of a radiotelescope.
kuasâr-e lap ciré
Fr.: quasar à lobes dominants
A → radio-loud quasar in which the lobes dominate the whole emission. It has been conjectured that this phenomenon is an → orientation effect. If the → jet is close to the plane of the sky, the lobes will dominate. See also → core-dominated quasar.